Significance Of Dietary Factors In Occurrence, Prevention And Treatment Of Esophageal Carcinoma

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Abeer Asif
Shaifa Saleem
Ayesha Abdul Qadir Memon
Muhammad Mustafa
Arif Mahmood
Ghulam Rasool Bhurgri
Fahad Jibran Siyal
Muhammad Osama
Calvin R. Wei


esophageal cancer, nutritional supplement, dietary factors


Esophageal cancer (EC) is a relatively rare cancer but highly fatal cancer due to delayed diagnosis and its malignant aggressive nature. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and esophagectomy are the main treatments for EC. However, recently, another complementary treatment has emerged in EC care: nutrition therapy.

Nutrition therapy utilizes diet and supplements to ensure that patients have enough nutrition to undergo treatment with minimal side-effects and long-term consequences by increasing treatment efficacy, vulnerability of EC cells, and reducing recurrence. The purpose of this study is to identify various EC-causing factors, pre- and post-operative circumstances & dietary habits that influence their development, along with the clinical steps that can be taken to improve EC care through nutrition therapy. We also emphasize the role of various nutritional components and supplements in EC prevention, cancer treatment efficacy, and rates of overall survival (OS) and recurrence.We found that several substances, including 5-fluorouracil, beta-carotene, and moringa, have anti-tumor properties, whereas vitamin C, and zinc also have the ability to boost the efficacy of treatment. Supplemental nutrition, such as glutamine, zinc, and omega-3 fatty acids, also decreased toxicity and stopped muscle deterioration after initial therapy.

On the other hand, we found that alcohol, smoking, red meat, excessive hot beverages, and self-diagnosing supplements like B12 can all lead to increased risk of developing EC. Hence, individualized nutrition can minimize side effects, preserve muscle mass, and avert malnutrition

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