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Muhammad Osama
Rahila Ikram
Calvin R. Wei
Raheela Saleem
Maddalena Zippi
Sumaira Khadim
Mamoona Qureshi
Shoaib Alam


Liver function test, serum creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, papaya parts


Objective: Prehistorically, the use of plants and plant-based natural products have often been considered for their medicinal properties in medicinal preparations. This is due to their low cost, accessibility, and minimal side effects. Globally, there is widespread assumption that such products are safe to use. Thus, awareness and reporting of adverse effects of plant-based products is very uncommon all over the world. Papaya plants, known for their nutritional and medicinal uses have often been consumed for numerous domestic and medical purpose. This study aims to investigate the impact of chronic dosing of the papaya’s flesh, seeds, unripe fruit, and mature leaves on 3 main organs such as liver, kidneys and heart.

 Method: The toxicity test was carried out on albino rabbits. Aqueous preparations of 4 parts of papaya i.e. ripe fruit, ripe seeds, unripe fruit and leaves were given for approximately 60 days and blood was withdrawn on day 61 for evaluation of biochemical effects.

Result: The study reveals that ripe and unripe papaya fruit and its leaves does not possess any adverse effect on the liver, kidney and heart during chronic daily use. However, ripe seeds elevates both liver and cardiac enzymes exceeding the normal acceptable limit.

Conclusion: Thus, our study suggests that among all parts; ripe fruit, unripe fruit and leaves are safe to be used for daily prolong use because of their ability to not affect the liver, kidney and cardiac enzymes

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