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Mahrung Jamali
Roozina Shaikh
Muhammad Raza
Shazia Parveen Solangi
Waleed Khan
Ebad Ullah
Nida Ayesha
Farwah Batool
Maqbool Ahmed Soomro
Laraib Fatima Abro
Muhammad Umer Farooq Mujahid
Rabia Mehmood
Muhammad Zeeshan Ahmad
Saba Javaid


Anti microbial resistance, Sindh, Essential Medicines, Self Administration, Antibiotic


The incidence of self-medication with antibiotics is increasing, propelled by a multitude of variables. A significant number of individuals who employ antibiotics in this method exhibit a lack of comprehensive knowledge regarding their appropriate utilization, encompassing aspects such as dose and probable adverse reactions. Therefore, the absence of regulation in antibiotic usage might lead to significant negative consequences for individuals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and trends of self-medication practices involving antibiotics among individuals residing in rural regions of the Sindh province. A cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Outpatient Department of Civil Hospital Karachi over the period of January to March 2023. The research encompassed a sample of 375 individuals residing in rural areas on the periphery of Karachi in the Sindh province. The participants were chosen using a non-probability convenience sampling method. The results of the study indicated a significantly elevated occurrence of self-administration of antibiotics, with a prevalence rate of 81.19% observed among individuals residing in rural areas of Sindh. The predominant factor influencing self-medication among participants was economic considerations, as reported by 78.0% of respondents. Amoxicillin emerged as the predominant self-prescribed antibiotic, constituting 41.0% of instances. Surprisingly, a significant proportion of the participants exhibited a lack of awareness regarding the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance resulting from inappropriate antibiotic usage. Merely 19 persons demonstrated accurate knowledge by properly recognizing the role of this practice in exacerbating antibiotic resistance. The research highlights the alarming prevalence of self-administration of antibiotics in rural Sindh. Immediate action is imperative, specifically the implementation of more stringent laws pertaining to the dispensation of drugs, particularly antibiotics, by pharmacies in the absence of prescriptions. In addition, the implementation of cost-effective treatment options within the public sector has the potential to significantly mitigate the prevalence of self-medication practices involving antibiotics among rural inhabitants in the province of Sindh.

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