Evaluation of wettability of hesperidin incorporated dentin adhesive -an invitro study

Main Article Content

M. Shamly
Iffat Nasim


Hesperidin, Flavonoid, Dentin bonding agent, Micro-organisms, Quality of life


Introduction: Measuring the contact angle of a dental adhesive on dentin can provide valuable information about its wettability and bonding potential. A lower contact angle indicates that the adhesive has better wettability and is more likely to form a strong and durable bond with the dentin. Collagen fibres become gelatinized as a result of acid etching, which inhibits resin diffusion in interfibrillar gaps. As a result collagen fibres that aren't protected can then degrade. This degradation can be avoided by adding substances with collagen crosslinking and MMP inhibitory properties to total etch dentin adhesive.
Materials and methods: The commercially available Adper single bond 2 total etch adhesive was used as a parent material. Control group serves the plain adper single bond 2 and the experimental group was prepared by adding 2% of Hesperidin diluted in Dimethyl sulfoxide to adper single bond 2 . Slices of labial enamel were made using a hard tissue microtome. A micro-syringe was used to apply experimental and control total etch adhesives over a sectioned tooth specimen in order to measure the contact angle of the bonding agent with the tooth specimen using Ossila Goniometer. The results were subjected to SPSS software 23. Student independent t test was done to determine the significant difference between groups.
Results: The mean value of experimental group is 30.80 with a standard deviation of 3.389 and the mean value of control group is 37.02 with a standard deviation of 5.523 with p value 0.242 and 95% confidence interval. The mean values of the experimental group were lower when compared to the control group. This implies that the wettability of test group is better than the control group. However the results are statistically insignificant because of small sample size.
Conclusion: Hesperidin together with Dimethyl sulfoxide synergistically shows improved wettability of total etch adhesive compared to the control group.
Clinical Significance: Total etch dentin adhesive with hesperidin incorporation can reduce the risk of post-operative sensitivity, inhibit MMP activity, and offer a natural substitute for synthetic additives while also enhancing the bond strength between the composite restoration and the tooth. 

Abstract 136 | PDF Downloads 138


1. Law K-Y, Zhao H. Surface Wetting: Characterization, Contact Angle, and Fundamentals. Springer, 2015.
2. Lopes GC, Perdigão J, Baptista D, et al. Does a Self-etching Ceramic Primer Improve Bonding to Lithium Disilicate Ceramics? Bond Strengths and FESEM Analyses. Oper Dent 2019; 44: 210–218.
3. Katyal D, Subramanian AK, Venugopal A, et al. Assessment of Wettability and Contact Angle of Bonding Agent with Enamel Surface Etched by Five Commercially Available Etchants: An In Vitro Study. Int J Dent 2021; 2021: 9457553.
4. Stape THS, Uctasli M, Cibelik HS, et al. Dry bonding to dentin: Broadening the moisture spectrum and increasing wettability of etch-and-rinse adhesives. Dent Mater 2021; 37: 1676–1687.
5. Patil DRD. DENTIN BONDING AGENTS. Blue Rose Publishers, 2022.
6. Garg N, Garg A. Textbook of Operative Dentistry. Boydell & Brewer Ltd, 2010.
7. Ponnaappa KCD, Rao RN. Shear bond strength of 4th & 5th generation dentin bonding agents in the presence and absence of moisture. An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2002; 13: 147–157.
8. Leal I de C, Rabelo CS, Viana ÍEL, et al. Hesperidin reduces dentin wear after erosion and erosion/abrasion cycling in vitro. Arch Oral Biol 2021; 129: 105208.
9. Islam SM, Hiraishi N, Nassar M, et al. In vitro effect of hesperidin on root dentin collagen and de/re-mineralization. Dent Mater J 2012; 31: 362–367.
10. Al-Gerny Y-A, Ghorab S-M, Soliman T-A. Bond strength and elemental analysis of oxidized dentin bonded to resin modified glass ionomer based restorative material. J Clin Exp Dent 2019; 11: e250–e256.
11. Xia H-Q, Gu T, Fan R, et al. Comparative investigation of bioflavonoid electrocatalysis in 1D, 2D, and 3D carbon nanomaterials for simultaneous detection of naringin and hesperidin in fruits. RSC Adv 2022; 12: 6409–6415.
12. Malli Sureshbabu N, Selvarasu K, V JK, et al. Concentrated Growth Factors as an Ingenious Biomaterial in Regeneration of Bony Defects after Periapical Surgery: A Report of Two Cases. Case Rep Dent 2019; 2019: 7046203.
13. Ahad M, Gheena S. Awareness, attitude and knowledge about evidence based dentistry among the dental practitioner in Chennai city. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2016; 9: 1863.
14. PradeepKumar AR, Shemesh H, Jothilatha S, et al. Diagnosis of Vertical Root Fractures in Restored Endodontically Treated Teeth: A Time-dependent Retrospective Cohort Study. J Endod 2016; 42: 1175–1180.
15. Jangid K, Alexander AJ, Jayakumar ND, et al. Ankyloglossia with cleft lip: A rare case report. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2015; 19: 690–693.
16. Kumar A, Sherlin HJ, Ramani P, et al. Expression of CD 68, CD 45 and human leukocyte antigen-DR in central and peripheral giant cell granuloma, giant cell tumor of long bones, and tuberculous granuloma: An immunohistochemical study. Indian J Dent Res 2015; 26: 295–303.
17. Manohar J, Abilasha R. A Study on the Knowledge of Causes and Prevalance of Pigmentation of Gingiva among Dental Students. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development 2019; 10: 95.
18. Sekar D, Mani P, Biruntha M, et al. Dissecting the functional role of microRNA 21 in osteosarcoma. Cancer Gene Ther 2019; 26: 179–182.
19. Girija SA, Jayaseelan VP, Arumugam P. Prevalence of VIM- and GIM-producing Acinetobacter baumannii from patients with severe urinary tract infection. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2018; 65: 539–550.
20. Maheswari TNU, Venugopal A, Sureshbabu NM, et al. Salivary micro RNA as a potential biomarker in oral potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review. Ci Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018; 30: 55–60.
21. Subashri A, Maheshwari TNU. Knowledge and attitude of oral hygiene practice among dental students. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2016; 9: 1840.
22. Sridharan G, Ramani P, Patankar S, et al. Evaluation of salivary metabolomics in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Pathol Med 2019; 48: 299–306.
23. Ezhilarasan D, Apoorva VS, Ashok Vardhan N. Syzygium cumini extract induced reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells. J Oral Pathol Med 2019; 48: 115–121.
24. Mathew MG, Samuel SR, Soni AJ, et al. Evaluation of adhesion of Streptococcus mutans, plaque accumulation on zirconia and stainless steel crowns, and surrounding gingival inflammation in primary molars: randomized controlled trial. Clin Oral Investig 2020; 24: 3275–3280.
25. Vijayashree Priyadharsini J. In silico validation of the non-antibiotic drugs acetaminophen and ibuprofen as antibacterial agents against red complex pathogens. J Periodontol 2019; 90: 1441–1448.
26. Chandrasekar R, Chandrasekhar S, Sundari KKS, et al. Development and validation of a formula for objective assessment of cervical vertebral bone age. Prog Orthod 2020; 21: 38.
27. Mirzaei K, Ahmadi E, Rafeie N, et al. The effect of dentin surface pretreatment using dimethyl sulfoxide on the bond strength of a universal bonding agent to dentin. BMC Oral Health 2023; 23: 250.
28. Andersen OM, Markham KR. Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications. CRC Press, 2005.
29. Montone AMI, Papaianni M, Malvano F, et al. Lactoferrin, Quercetin, and Hydroxyapatite Act Synergistically against. Int J Mol Sci; 22. Epub ahead of print 26 August 2021. DOI: 10.3390/ijms22179247.
30. Rudawska A. Adhesives: Applications and Properties. BoD – Books on Demand, 2016.
31. Epasinghe DJ. Applications of Proanthocyanidin in Dentistry. Open Dissertation Press, 2017.
32. Wang H, Guo Z, Liu P, et al. Luteolin ameliorates cornea stromal collagen degradation and inflammatory damage in rats with corneal alkali burn. Exp Eye Res 2023; 231: 109466.
33. Balkaya H, Demirbuğa S. Evaluation of six different one-step universal adhesive systems in terms of dentin bond strength, adhesive interface characterization, surface tension, contact angle, degree of conversion and solvent evaporation after immediate and delayed use. J Esthet Restor Dent 2023; 35: 479–492.
34. Botelho MPJ, Isolan CP, Schwantz JK, et al. Rubbing time and bonding performance of one-step adhesives to primary enamel and dentin. J Appl Oral Sci 2017; 25: 523–532.
35. Ahmed MH, Yoshihara K, Yao C, et al. Multiparameter evaluation of acrylamide HEMA alternative monomers in 2-step adhesives. Dent Mater 2021; 37: 30–47.
36. Mazzoni A, Angeloni V, Comba A, et al. Cross-linking effect on dentin bond strength and MMPs activity. Dent Mater 2018; 34: 288–295.
37. Hardan L, Daood U, Bourgi R, et al. Effect of Collagen Crosslinkers on Dentin Bond Strength of Adhesive Systems: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Cells; 11. Epub ahead of print 4 August 2022. DOI: 10.3390/cells11152417.
38. Dávila-Sánchez A, Gutierrez MF, Bermudez JP, et al. Influence of flavonoids on long-term bonding stability on caries-affected dentin. Dent Mater 2020; 36: 1151–1160.
39. Yamazaki S. Inhibitory Effect of Kaempferol on Skin Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis by the Suppression of Oxidative Stress. 2017.
40. Gupta A, Al-Aubaidy HA, Narkowicz CK, et al. Analysis of Citrus Bioflavonoid Content and Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitory Potential of Commercially Available Supplements. Molecules; 27. Epub ahead of print 25 July 2022. DOI: 10.3390/molecules27154741.
41. Jaiswal AK. Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Fruits and Vegetables. Academic Press, 2020.
42. Kim KM, Im A-R, Lee JY, et al. Hesperidin Inhibits UVB-Induced VEGF Production and Angiogenesis via the Inhibition of PI3K/Akt Pathway in HR-1 Hairless Mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2021; 44: 1492–1498.
43. Beck F, Ilie N. Antioxidants and Collagen-Crosslinking: Benefit on Bond Strength and Clinical Applicability. Materials ; 13. Epub ahead of print 1 December 2020. DOI: 10.3390/ma13235483.