Main Article Content
Risperidone, Schizophrenia, Citicoline, SANS, IL-6.
Background: Schizophrenia has a variety of debilitating symptoms with most categorized into three groups: positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Inflammation stated as one mechanism Which underlying symptom negative, especially deficit motivation, through effect cytokine inflammation of the basal ganglia. Anti-inflammatory pathway cholinergic is new neuroimmunomodulatory pathway found. Citicoline as an α7nAChR agonist has a role as an anti-inflammatory which can prevent extreme inflammatory reactions in the brain. On research previously There are significant findings about effect of using citicoline adjuvant therapy on IL-6 levels and negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Research involving clinical trials still very limited about administration of citicoline against patient schizophrenia
2. Bariş, E., Arici, M. A., & Hamurtekin, E. (2019). The Role of Nicotinic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway in Prostaglandin Mediated Inflammatory Response in Sepsis: A Short Review. Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences, 9(4), 350-357.
3. Bittner, R. A., Barnes-Scheufler, C. V., Hettwer, M. D., Reif, A., & Qubad, M. (2021). Recent Developments in Treating Cognitive Impairment Associated with Schizophrenia. Preprints, 1–41.
4. Bradford, A. (2009). The dopamine and glutamate theories of schizophrenia: A short review. Current Anaesthesia and Critical Care, 20(5–6), 240–241.
5. Feng, Z., Zhang, Y., You, X., Zhang, W., Ma, Y., Long, Q., ... & Teng, Z. (2020). Effects of risperidone on blood levels of interleukin-6 in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis. Medicine, 99(15).
6. Galderisi, S., Mucci, A., Buchanan, R. W., & Arango, C. (2018). Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: new developments and unanswered research questions. The Lancet Psychiatry, 5(8), 664–677
7. Ghajar, A., Gholamian, F., Tabatabei-Motlagh, M., Afarideh, M., Rezaei, F., Ghazizadeh-Hashemi, M., & Akhondzadeh, S. (2018). Citicoline (CDP-choline) add-on therapy to risperidone for treatment of negative symptoms in patients with stable schizophrenia: A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Human Psychopharmacology, 33(4), 1–9.
8. Goldsmith, D. R., Rapaport, M. H., & Miller, B. J. (2016). A meta-analysis of blood cytokine network alterations in psychiatric patients: Comparisons between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression. Molecular Psychiatry, 21(12), 1696–1709.
9. Goldsmith, D., R., & Rapaport, M. H. (2020). Inflammation and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Implications for Reward Processing and Motivational Deficits. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 1–14.
10. Gomes, F. V., & Grace, A. A. (2021). Beyond dopamine receptor antagonism: new targets for schizophrenia treatment and prevention. International journal of molecular sciences, 22(9), 4467.
11. Horacek, J., Bubenikova-Valesova, V., Kopecek, M., Palenicek, T., Dockery, C., Mohr, P., & Höschl, C. (2006). Mechanism of action of atypical antipsychotic drugs and the neurobiology of schizophrenia. CNS Drugs, 20(5), 389–409.
12. Khandaker, G. M., Cousins, L., Deakin, J., Lennox, B. R., Yolken, R., & Jones, P. B. (2015). Inflammation and immunity in schizophrenia: Implications for pathophysiology and treatment. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(3), 258–270
13. Maqbool, M., Dar, A., Gani, I., & Rasool, S. (2019). Risperidone in Schizophrenia: An Overview. Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(5), 142–147.
14. Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas). (2018). Persebaran Prevalensi Skizofrenia/Psikosis di Indonesia. Jakarta: Kementrian Kesehatan RI.
15. Riskesdas. (2018). Laporan Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan Riskesdas 2018. In Badan Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Kesehatan 110, (9).
16. Saidah, S., Sonny, L. T., Lilik, H., Burhanuddin, B., Haerani, R., & Wempy, T. (2021). Levels of interleukin 6 as a predictor of metabolic syndrome in schizophrenic patients receiving combination therapy of typical and atypical antipsychotics. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 9, 600–607.
17. Shahraki, A., Sarabandi, R., Kianpour, M., & Zakeri, Z. (2016). Elevated serum interleukin-23 and interleukin-6 levels in schizophrenic patients compared to those in healthy controls. Shiraz E Medical Journal, 17(6), 4–8.
18. Wu, Y. jin, Wang, L., Ji, C. fan, Gu, S. fei, Yin, Q., & Zuo, J. (2021). The Role of α7nAChR-Mediated Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Pathway in Immune Cells. Inflammation, 44(3), 821–834.