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Iftikhar Ahmad Khan
Dr. Rehana Masood
Fatima Mujahid
Dr Haseeb Umar
Saba Nosheen
Farzana Shaheen


Titanium dioxide, Mango seed, Photocatalysis, Dye degradation, Composite materials


Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) is widely recognized for its effectiveness in photocatalysis, especially in environmental applications such as dye degradation. Despite its capabilities, TiO₂'s performance can be limited by factors such as charge recombination and limited light absorption, necessitating modifications to improve its efficacy.

Objectives: This study aims to enhance the photocatalytic performance of TiO₂ by creating composites with mango seed powder. We investigate the photocatalytic degradation capabilities of these composites for two common dyes: crystal violet and methyl orange.

Methods: TiO₂ was mixed with mango seed powder in ratios of 1:1 (coded as S-A) and 1:2 (coded as S-B), followed by calcination at 500°C with a ramp of 10°C min⁻¹ under a nitrogen flow. The photocatalytic activities of the composites were evaluated by measuring the degradation of crystal violet (100 mg L⁻¹) and methyl orange (50 mg L⁻¹) under light exposure for 90 minutes.

Results: The photocatalytic tests revealed that both composites efficiently degraded the dyes. Sample S-A achieved decolourization ratios of 83% for crystal violet and 96% for methyl orange, whereas sample S-B showed slightly lower efficiencies with 82% and 87% decolourization for the respective dyes. Additionally, the composites demonstrated superior particle separation from solutions post-photocatalysis compared to pure TiO₂.

Conclusion: Introducing mango seed powder into TiO₂ composites significantly enhanced their photocatalytic performance against both tested dyes. The observed improvement suggests that such composites are promising materials for the heterogeneous photocatalysis of dyes, providing a sustainable approach to wastewater treatment by utilizing agricultural waste products.

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