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Muhammad Mudassar
Muhammad Shafique
Muhammad Hidayat Rasool
Bilal Aslam
Farwa Batool Shamsi


Covid-19, Antibodies, RT-PCR, SARS-CoV-2, ELISA


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), had a profound impact on global health, economy, and society. Serological investigations, play a pivotal role in understanding the immune response generated in these individuals, including the production of specific antibodies. This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Faisalabad, Pakistan, aimed to investigate the prevalence of COVID-19 and the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among vaccinated and non-vaccinated people. A total of 300 participants from three different medical institutes were enrolled among three different medical institutes and the participants were divided into two groups based on their vaccination status: non-vaccinated (n=150) and vaccinated (n=150).ELISA and PCR were performed on blood tests for the detection of antibodies and reactive cases. Based on gender howed that in the non-vaccinated group, 85 individuals (56.6%) were males, while 65 individuals (43.3%) were females. In the vaccinated group, there were 80 males (53.3%) and 70 females (46.6%). Regarding age groups, the participants were categorized into four groups. In the non-vaccinated group, 50 individuals (33.3%) were in the age range of 21-30 years, as were 50 individuals (33.3%) in the vaccinated group. The 31-40 year age group had 30 participants (20.0%) in both the non-vaccinated and vaccinated groups. In the non-vaccinated group, 30 individuals (20.0%) were in the 41-50 year age range, while 40 individuals (26.6%) fell in the same age group in the vaccinated group. For individuals above 50 years of age, there were 40 participants (26.6%) in the non-vaccinated group and 30 participants (20.0%) in the vaccinated group. At the end of the study, 22 of the participants were non-reactive against SARS-Cov-2 IgG antibodies out of 150 that were non-vaccinated while total 29 individuals were non-reactive against IgG antibodies that were vaccinated.  This study emphasizes the urgent need for enhanced genomic surveillance in Pakistan to monitor the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants, highlighting the importance of timely detection, and understanding their implications for public health interventions and vaccine development.

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