CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS, BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE, AND HLA-DRB1 STATUS IN TYPE 1 DIABETES DIAGNOSED DURING YOUTH IN PAKISTAN.

Main Article Content

Mohammad Israr
Mujeeb Alam Khan
Muhammad Idrees
Sarwat Abbassi
Muhammad Shoaib
Syed Asad Ullah Bacha

Keywords

Type 1 diabetes, childhood, biochemical markers, HLA genotyping, diabetic ketoacidosis, disease pathogenesis

Abstract

Purpose: This study aimed to characterize the clinical, biochemical, and genetic attributes of type 1 diabetes (T1D) diagnosed during childhood and adolescence in Pakistan, addressing existing knowledge gaps in the local profile of childhood diabetes.


Study design : A Observational cross-sectional study


Duration and place of study : department of Biochemistry, Bacha Khan Medical College Mardan


From 05-jan 2022 to 05-July 2022 


Methods and Materials: A hospital-based observational study was conducted, enrolling consenting subjects aged 25 years or younger at the time of initial diabetes diagnosis between From 05-jan 2022 to 05-July 2022. Clinical evaluation, biochemical assays, and HLA genotyping were performed. Controls included unrelated, healthy adults without diabetes from similar geographical origins.


Results: Of 200 enrolled subjects, 10 were excluded due to incomplete data. Predominance of males (57.90%) and a mean age at diagnosis of 12 years were observed. High rates of diabetic ketoacidosis (25%) and deficient C-peptide levels confirmed clinical T1D and autoimmune etiology. Over half of subjects tested positive for GAD65 autoantibodies. HLA genotyping revealed DRB103:01 as the major genetic susceptibility allele.


Conclusion: The study provides novel insights into youth-onset T1D in Pakistan, including elevated male predominance, bimodal age distribution, high frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis, and distinct genetic risk variants. Understanding ethnic and population-specific heterogeneity is crucial for optimizing diabetes management and control approaches tailored for this region. Further research is warranted to confirm findings and explore longitudinal trends and pathogenic subtleties.

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