Main Article Content

Mohammad Israr
Mujeeb Alam Khan
Muhammad Idrees
Sarwat Abbassi
Muhammad Shoaib
Syed Asad Ullah Bacha


Type 1 diabetes, childhood, biochemical markers, HLA genotyping, diabetic ketoacidosis, disease pathogenesis


Purpose: This study aimed to characterize the clinical, biochemical, and genetic attributes of type 1 diabetes (T1D) diagnosed during childhood and adolescence in Pakistan, addressing existing knowledge gaps in the local profile of childhood diabetes.

Study design : A Observational cross-sectional study

Duration and place of study : department of Biochemistry, Bacha Khan Medical College Mardan

From 05-jan 2022 to 05-July 2022 

Methods and Materials: A hospital-based observational study was conducted, enrolling consenting subjects aged 25 years or younger at the time of initial diabetes diagnosis between From 05-jan 2022 to 05-July 2022. Clinical evaluation, biochemical assays, and HLA genotyping were performed. Controls included unrelated, healthy adults without diabetes from similar geographical origins.

Results: Of 200 enrolled subjects, 10 were excluded due to incomplete data. Predominance of males (57.90%) and a mean age at diagnosis of 12 years were observed. High rates of diabetic ketoacidosis (25%) and deficient C-peptide levels confirmed clinical T1D and autoimmune etiology. Over half of subjects tested positive for GAD65 autoantibodies. HLA genotyping revealed DRB103:01 as the major genetic susceptibility allele.

Conclusion: The study provides novel insights into youth-onset T1D in Pakistan, including elevated male predominance, bimodal age distribution, high frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis, and distinct genetic risk variants. Understanding ethnic and population-specific heterogeneity is crucial for optimizing diabetes management and control approaches tailored for this region. Further research is warranted to confirm findings and explore longitudinal trends and pathogenic subtleties.

Abstract 76 | PDF Downloads 23


1. Redondo MJ, Yu L, Hawa M, et al. Heterogeneity of type I diabetes: analysis of monozygotic twins in Great Britain and the United States. Diabetologia. 2001;44(3):354-362.
2. Steck AK, Rewers MJ. Genetics of type 1 diabetes. Clin Chem. 2011;57(2):176-185.
3. Pociot F, Lernmark Å. Genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes. Lancet. 2016;387(10035):2331-2339.
4. Ziegler AG, Rewers M, Simell O, et al. Seroconversion to multiple islet autoantibodies and risk of progression to diabetes in children. JAMA. 2013;309(23):2473-2479.
5. Craig ME, Kim KW, Isaacs SR, et al. Early-life factors contributing to type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2019;62(10):1823-1834.
6. Al-Herbish AS, El-Mouzan MI, Al-Salloum AA, Al-Qurachi MM, Al-Omar AA. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. Saudi Med J. 2008; 29(9):1285-1288.
7. Al-Maskari MY, Waly MI, Ali A, Al-Shookri A. Prevalence of risk factors for diabetic foot complications. BMC Fam Pract. 2007;8:59.
8. Abdulrahman M, Al-Mahmoud H, Hossain MA, Hossain MI. Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus in UAE. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2016;116:46-47.
9. DIAMOND Project Group. Incidence and trends of childhood Type 1 diabetes worldwide 1990-1999. Diabet Med. 2006;23(8):857-866.
10. Al-Attas O, Al-Daghri N, Alokail M, et al. Gender differences in prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose regulation in Saudis. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2013;6(4):320-328.
11. Abdulrahman M, Elsanousi S, Alawadi F, Almansoori M, Moussa M. Patterns of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus in the United Arab Emirates. Saudi Med J. 2016;37(11):1257-1261.
12. Patterson CC, Dahlquist GG, Gyürüs E, Green A, Soltész G, EURODIAB Study Group. Incidence trends for childhood type 1 diabetes in Europe during 1989-2003 and predicted new cases 2005-20: a multicentre prospective registration study. Lancet. 2009;373(9680):2027-2033.
13. Hussain R, Bittles AH. The prevalence and demographic characteristics of consanguineous marriages in Pakistan. J Biosoc Sci. 1998;30(2):261-275.
14. Colagiuri R, Colagiuri S, Yach D, Pramming S. The answer to diabetes prevention: science, surgery, service delivery, or social policy? Am J Public Health. 2010;100(9):1562-1569.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>