Main Article Content

Muhammad Idrees
Raza Muhammad
Sumaiya Noor
Syed Mohammad Usama
Taher Janoowala
Sadia Arif
Muhammad Umer Khan
Ayesha Amjad


Urinary Tract Infection, Metabolic Diseases, Urinary Stones, Pakistan


Background: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and metabolic diseases significantly impact global health, with urinary stones being influenced by various factors, including metabolic abnormalities.

Objective: This study's main goal was to find out how common urinary tract infections are in the area of Pakistan and how they interact with metabolic disorders in those who have kidney stones.

Methodology: The research was conducted from January to December 2022 at the medicine department of Saidu Group of Teaching Hospital, Swat, Pakistan, using a retrospective cohort approach. Retrospective reviews of medical records were used to gather data, such as the history of metabolic diseases, the composition of stones, and UTI episodes. Urine samples collected every 24 hours and blood analysis were among the laboratory procedures carried out. Using SPSS for statistical analysis, a significance threshold of p < 0.05 was established.

Results: The research, which included 162 individuals with kidney stones, revealed a gender distribution that was well balanced, with 48.14% (n = 78) men and 51.86% (n = 84) women. Urinary stone history (n=58; 35.80%), diabetes mellitus (n=47; 29.01%), hypercalciuria (39; 24.07%), and past UTIs (n-95; 58.64%) were also significantly prevalent in the clinical history. A strong correlation was seen between metabolic abnormalities, namely hypercalciuria, and UTI (p = 0.001). A significant correlation between UTI and hypercalciuria was shown by logistic regression analysis (OR: 3.87, p = 0.0002). There was a noteworthy correlation seen in stone composition, namely in calcium oxalate (OR: 1.89, p = 0.062).

Conclusion: The research highlights a noteworthy occurrence of urinary tract infections, metabolic disorders, and repeated instances of bladder stones in individuals diagnosed with urinary stones.

Abstract 162 | pdf Downloads 59


1. Josephs-Spaulding J, Krogh TJ, Rettig HC, Lyng M, Chkonia M, Waschina S, Graspeuntner S, Rupp J, Møller-Jensen J, Kaleta C. Recurrent urinary tract infections: unraveling the complicated environment of uncomplicated rUTIs. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2021 Jul 22;11:562525.
2. Öztürk R, Murt A. Epidemiology of urological infections: a global burden. World journal of urology. 2020 Nov;38:2669-79.
3. Ratkalkar VN, Kleinman JG. Mechanisms of stone formation. Clinical reviews in bone and mineral metabolism. 2011 Dec;9:187-97.
4. Khan SR, Pearle MS, Robertson WG, Gambaro G, Canales BK, Doizi S, Traxer O, Tiselius HG. Kidney stones. Nature reviews Disease primers. 2016 Feb 25;2(1):1-23.
5. Scales Jr CD, Tasian GE, Schwaderer AL, Goldfarb DS, Star RA, Kirkali Z. Urinary stone disease: advancing knowledge, patient care, and population health. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN. 2016 Jul 7;11(7):1305.
6. Patel SR, Ingram C, Scovell JM, Link RE, Mayer WA. The microbiome and urolithiasis: current advancements and future challenges. Current Urology Reports. 2022 Mar;23(3):47-56.
7. Miano R, Germani S, Vespasiani G. Stones and urinary tract infections. Urologiainternationalis. 2007;79(Suppl. 1):32-6.
8. Magri V, Boltri M, Cai T, Colombo R, Cuzzocrea S, De Visschere P, Giuberti R, Granatieri CM, Latino MA, Larganà G, Leli C. Multidisciplinary approach to prostatitis. ArchivioItaliano di Urologia e Andrologia. 2018;90(4):227-48.
9. Sakhaee K, Maalouf NM, Sinnott B. Kidney stones 2012: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2012 Jun 1;97(6):1847-60.
10. Lee JA, Stern JM. Understanding the link between gut microbiome and urinary stone disease. Current Urology Reports. 2019 May;20:1-6.
11. Aziz MA, Khan AH, Adnan M, Izatullah I. Traditional uses of medicinal plants reported by the indigenous communities and local herbal practitioners of Bajaur Agency, Federally Administrated Tribal Areas, Pakistan. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2017 Feb 23;198:268-81.
12. Liu Y, Chen Y, Liao B, Luo D, Wang K, Li H, Zeng G. Epidemiology of urolithiasis in Asia. Asian journal of urology. 2018 Oct 1;5(4):205-14.
13. Luyckx VA, Tuttle KR, Garcia-Garcia G, Gharbi MB, Heerspink HJ, Johnson DW, Liu ZH, Massy ZA, Moe O, Nelson RG, Sola L. Reducing major risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Kidney international supplements. 2017 Oct 1;7(2):71-87.
14. Akpakli EA. Comparative Analysis of Kidney Stone Composition in Patients from Ghana and South Africa: Case Study of Kidney Stones from Accra and Cape Town (Master's thesis, Faculty of Health Sciences).
15. YenehunWorku G, BeleteAlamneh Y, ErkuAbegaz W. Prevalence of bacterial urinary tract infection and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among diabetes mellitus patients attending Zewditu memorial hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Infection and drug resistance. 2021 Apr 15:1441-54.
16. Gutema T, Weldegebreal F, Marami D, Teklemariam Z. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and associated factors of urinary tract infections among adult diabetic patients at Metu Karl Heinz Referral Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. International Journal of Microbiology. 2018 Nov 1;2018.
17. Islam MA, Islam MR, Khan R, Amin MB, Rahman M, Hossain MI, Ahmed D, Asaduzzaman M, Riley LW. Prevalence, etiology and antibiotic resistance patterns of community-acquired urinary tract infections in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Plos one. 2022 Sep 15;17(9):e0274423.
18. Zhang J, Xie L, Cao Y, Wang R, Shang Z, Yang Y, Ren H, Liu C. Characteristics of and antibiotic resistance in urinary tract pathogens isolated from patients with upper urinary tract stones. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2023 Jan 1;36(1).
19. Szymanski KM, Misseri R, Whittam B, Lingeman JE, Amstutz S, Ring JD, Kaefer M, Rink RC, Cain MP. Bladder stones after bladder augmentation are not what they seem. Journal of Pediatric Urology. 2016 Apr 1;12(2):98-e1.
20. Unal D, Yeni E, Verit A, Karatas OF. Prognostic factors effecting on recurrence of urinary stone disease: a multivariate analysis of everyday patient parameters. International urology and nephrology. 2005 Sep;37:447-52.
21. Chen D, Jiang C, Liang X, Zhong F, Huang J, Lin Y, Zhao Z, Duan X, Zeng G, Wu W. Early and rapid prediction of postoperative infections following percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with complex kidney stones. BJU international. 2019 Jun;123(6):1041-7.
22. Wu WH, Meijer OG, Uegaki K, Mens JM, Van Dieen JH, Wuisman PI, Östgaard HC. Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPP), I: Terminology, clinical presentation, and prevalence. European Spine Journal. 2004 Nov;13:575-89.
23. Guerra A, Ticinesi A, Allegri F, Pinelli S, Aloe R, Meschi T. Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis with pure calcium oxalate composition: clinical correlates of the calcium oxalate dihydrate/monohydrate (COD/COM) stone ratio. Urolithiasis. 2020 Jun;48:271-9.
24. Kovacevic L, Wolfe-Christensen C, Edwards L, Sadaps M, Lakshmanan Y. From hypercalciuria to hypocitraturia—a shifting trend in pediatric urolithiasis?. The Journal of urology. 2012 Oct 1;188(4):1623-7.

Most read articles by the same author(s)