Main Article Content

Zunaira Javed
Syeda Hira
Sadia Sardar
Hira Ikram
Iqbal Nisa
Nain Taara Bukhari5
Sajid Iqbal
Huma Mir
Farah Shireen
Muhammad Saqib Khalil


MDR, A. baumannii, Staphylococci, Sequencing, Staphylococcus arlettae


Septicemia is a leading cause of death worldwide. Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococci are common causative agents. It's really dangerous to the general population's health. The present state of bacterial isolates and their antibiotic resistance profile is crucial information for doctors and other healthcare practitioners to have in order to intervene effectively. Patients with septicemia in Peshawar were analyzed for the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci and Acinetobacter baumannii. Patients at the Hayatabad Medical Complex in Peshawar who were thought to have septicemia had 100 blood samples obtained from them. Biochemical and phylogenetic analyses validated the isolated blood stains. They also took an antibiotic sensitivity test. Strains that were first validated biochemically were then confirmed by sequencing. Three Acinetobacter baumannii isolates (HB-1, HB-2, and HB-3) and four Staphylococcus isolates (S-1, S-2, S-3, and S-4) were sequenced to verify their authenticity. Of a total of 100 blood samples, 62% were positive for bacterial growth, whereas 38% were negative. There were 23 Staphylococci (37.09%), 11 Acinetobacter baumannii (17.74%), and 28 other species (45.16%) among the positive samples. A little neonatal majority was observed, with the required species being acquired from 20 (58.82%) male patients and 14 (41.7% female patients). Among male patients, those between the ages of 1 and 18 had the greatest rate of A. baumannii, whereas among female patients, those 50 and older had the lowest rate of A. baumannii isolates. xi Patients between the ages of 1 and 18 were found to have the highest rate of Staphylococci isolation, whereas patients between the ages of 18 and 50 had the lowest prevalence. Nine (81.8%) of the eleven (17.74%) A. baumannii tested were multidrug-resistant, while just two (18.18%) were responsive to antibiotics. Twenty-three of the bacteria (37.09%) were Staphylococci, and all of them were resistant to methicillin. Among the Acinetobacter sequenced, HB-1 was determined to be Acinetobacter junii, HB-2 and HB-3 to be Acinetobacter baumannii, and S-1 to be Staphylococcus hominis, S-2 and S-4 to be Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and S-3 to be Staphylococcus arlettae.

Abstract 101 | pdf Downloads 46


1. Pant, A., I. Mackraj, and T. Govender, Advances in sepsis diagnosis and management: a paradigm shift towards nanotechnology. Journal of Biomedical Science, 2021. 28(1): p. 1-30.
2. Rosolem, M.M., et al., Critically ill patients with cancer and sepsis: clinical course and prognostic factors. Journal of critical care, 2012. 27(3): p. 301-307.
3. Wujtewicz, M., et al., COVID-19–what should anaethesiologists and intensivists know about it? Anaesthesiology intensive therapy, 2020. 52(1): p. 34-41.
4. Normark, B.H. and S. Normark, Evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance. Journal of internal medicine, 2002. 252(2): p. 91-106.
5. Yallew, W.W., Hospital acquired infections and infection prevention practices in teaching hospitals in the Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. Healthcare and Patient Safety, 2017. 2016: p. 8.
6. Maisch, T., Resistance in antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation of bacteria. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, 2015. 14(8): p. 1518-1526.
7. Chapelle, F.H., Ground-water microbiology and geochemistry2000: John Wiley & Sons.
8. Hovelius, B. and P.-A. Mårdh, Staphylococcus saprophyticus as a common cause of urinary tract infections. Reviews of infectious diseases, 1984. 6(3): p. 328-337.
9. Nahaei, M.R., et al., Detection of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and surveillance of antibacterial resistance in a multi-center study from Iran. Jundishapur journal of microbiology, 2015. 8(8).
10. Bowler, P.G., Antibiotic resistance and biofilm tolerance: a combined threat in the treatment of chronic infections. Journal of Wound Care, 2018. 27(5): p. 273-277.
11. Peacock, S.J. and G.K. Paterson, Mechanisms of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Annual review of biochemistry, 2015. 84: p. 577-601.
12. Frieri, M., K. Kumar, and A. Boutin, Antibiotic resistance. Journal of infection and public health, 2017. 10(4): p. 369-378.
13. Asante, J., et al., Review of clinically and epidemiologically relevant coagulase-negative Staphylococci in Africa. Microbial Drug Resistance, 2020. 26(8): p. 951-970.
14. Nordmann, P., et al., Superbugs in the coming new decade; multidrug resistance and prospects for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2010. Current opinion in microbiology, 2007. 10(5): p. 436-440.
15. Simpson, S.Q., New sepsis criteria: a change we should not make. Chest, 2016. 149(5): p. 1117-1118.
16. Pruitt Jr, B.A., et al., Burn wound infections: current status. World journal of surgery, 1998. 22(2): p. 135-145.
17. McNeil, M.M. and J.M. Brown, The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology. Clinical microbiology reviews, 1994. 7(3): p. 357-417.
18. Dellinger, R.P., et al., Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012. Intensive care medicine, 2013. 39(2): p. 165-228.
19. Santajit, S. and N. Indrawattana, Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in ESKAPE pathogens. BioMed research international, 2016. 2016.
20. Salerno, F., et al., The impact of infection by multidrug‐resistant agents in patients with cirrhosis. A multicenter prospective study. Liver International, 2017. 37(1): p. 71-79.
21. Wiest, R., A. Krag, and A. Gerbes, Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: recent guidelines and beyond. Gut, 2012. 61(2): p. 297-310.
22. Bergmans, D.C., et al., Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia by oral decontamination: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 2001. 164(3): p. 382-388.
23. Von Reyn, C.F., et al., Infective endocarditis: an analysis based on strict case definitions. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1981. 94(4_Part_1): p. 505-518.
24. Prashanth, K. and S. Badrinath, In vitro susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species to commonly used cephalosporins, quinolones, and aminoglycosides. Indian journal of medical microbiology, 2004. 22(2): p. 97-103.
25. Huang, L., et al., Prevalence and correlates of mental health problems among Chinese adolescents with frequent peer victimization experiences. Children, 2021. 8(5): p. 403.
26. Yusef, D., et al., Clinical characteristics and epidemiology of sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit in the era of multi-drug resistant organisms: a retrospective review. Pediatrics & Neonatology, 2018. 59(1): p. 35-41.
27. Quinn, J.P., Clinical problems posed by multiresistant nonfermenting gram-negative pathogens. Clinical infectious diseases, 1998. 27(Supplement_1): p. S117-S124.
28. Kindu, M., et al., Carbapenemase-producing non-glucose-fermenting gram-negative bacilli in Africa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International journal of microbiology, 2020. 2020.
29. Chen, S., et al., Epidemiology and host-and variety-dependent characteristics of infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans in Australia and New Zealand. Clinical infectious diseases, 2000. 31(2): p. 499-508.
30. Prakash, D. and R.S. Saxena, Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens causing urinary tract infection in urban community of meerut city, India. International scholarly research notices, 2013. 2013.
31. Rodriguez Guardado, A., et al., Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter meningitis in neurosurgical patients with intraventricular catheters: assessment of different treatments. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2008. 61(4): p. 908-913.
32. Li, B., et al., The importance of lag time extension in determining bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Analyst, 2016. 141(10): p. 3059-3067.
33. Van Looveren, M., H. Goossens, and A.S. Group, Antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter spp. in Europe. Clinical microbiology and infection, 2004. 10(8): p. 684-704.
34. Dijkshoorn, L., A. Nemec, and H. Seifert, An increasing threat in hospitals: multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Nature reviews microbiology, 2007. 5(12): p. 939-951.
35. Howard, A., et al., Acinetobacter baumannii: an emerging opportunistic pathogen. Virulence, 2012. 3(3): p. 243-250.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>