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Sidra Mumtaz
Sheikh Abdur Rashid
Hashmat Ullah
Tariq Javed
Nisar Ahmed Shahwani
Rabia Baloch
Ahmed Sadiq Sheikh
Nitasha Gohar


Lornoxicam, Direct Compression, Mucoadhesion, Sodium Alginate, In-vitro drug release


This preliminary investigation was aimed to optimize the fabrication of lornoxicam (LRX) loaded buccal mucoadhesive tablets for local management of pain and inflammation in oral mucosa. The direct compression method was used to produce buccal mucoadhesive tablets. Chitosan, HPMC and sodium alginate were screened in preliminary study to find out requisite concentrations for optimization purpose. Solid state characterization test, such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, was carried out to investigate drug excipient compatibility in physical mixtures of drug and polymers. This was followed by further assessment of formulations at in-vitro, ex-vivo and in-vivo levels to determine swelling index, matrix erosion, mucoadhesive strength and time, in-vivo residence time and drug release. The findings deduced from preliminary investigations on mucoadhesive buccal tablets showed that all sodium alginate containing formulations, except F8, did not sustain drug release up to 6 h, and showed poor mucoadhesivity. The mucoadhesive character as well as drug release pattern was influenced by the concentration of HPMC in mucoadhesive buccal tablets. Chitosan containing formulations indicated lower values in terms of swellibility, mucoadhesion and drug release as compared to HPMC containing formulations, due to the presence of reduced hydrophilic interactions between chitosan particles. Additionally, it was noted that swelling index values were greater for formulations containing sodium alginate as compared to formulations containing HPMC, due to greater swelling capability of sodium alginate. The values of surface pH ranged from 6.38 – 7.14 and fall within physiological salivary pH range. The matrix erosion data revealed significantly higher values for sodium alginate containing formulations, whereas HPMC containing formulations showed increased values for ex-vivo mucoadhesive strength, time, in-vivo residence time and in-vitro drug release i.e.  9.55 ± 1.84 g, 5.82 ± 1.11 h, 2.01 ± 0.85 h and sustained drug release for 4 h, respectively, for F4. Thus, it is concluded that mucoadhesive tablet formulation batch F4 was considered as an optimized formulation based on mucoadhesive strength and time and could be subjected to main study.

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