Main Article Content

Tariq Javed
Hashmat Ullah
Sheikh Abdur Rashid
Muhammad Tariq Khan
Nadia Shamshad Malik
Ahmed Sadiq Sheikh
Nitasha Gohar
Ayesha Rashid
Amina Riaz
Muhammad Atta ur Rehman


N-heterocycles, bioactive compounds, 3-bromo isoquinoline derivatives, Suzuki coupling reaction, analgesic activity, and anti-inflammatory activity


Nitrogen containing heterocycles have gained massive research attention since they are frequently found as naturally occurring bioactive compounds. This status of N-heterocycles makes it dynamic to design methods to expand their synthetic efficacies and review the effects of their modifications on biological systems. In the present study we synthesized several 3-bromo isoquinoline derivatives which are nitrogen-containing arylated heterocycles via Suzuki coupling reaction. The prepared compounds were physically and chemically characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectral data. Biological screening such as antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory, COX2 inhibitor activities along with toxicity concerns were checked. Molecular docking studies were performed to confirm the ligand protein binding and type of binding interactions resulting in the biological activities of the compounds. Therefore, our study proposed that the 3-bromo isoquinoline derivatives hold noteworthy analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity and have very positive toxicity values. These facts serve as basis that keeping the activity and safety considerations these molecules might attend researcher’s attention as a lead molecule for the discovery of potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents.

Abstract 99 | Pdf Downloads 43


1. García-Ramírez, J., L.A. González-Cortés, and L.D. Miranda, A Modular Synthesis of the Rhazinilam Family of Alkaloids and Analogs Thereof. Organic Letters, 2022. 24(44): p. 8093-8097.
2. Akhtar, J., et al., Structure-activity relationship (SAR) study and design strategies of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic moieties for their anticancer activities. European journal of medicinal chemistry, 2017. 125: p. 143-189.
3. Heravi, M.M. and V. Zadsirjan, Prescribed drugs containing nitrogen heterocycles: an overview. RSC advances, 2020. 10(72): p. 44247-44311.
4. Daidone, G., B. Maggio, and D. Schillaci, Salicylanilide and its heterocyclic analogues. A comparative study of their antimicrobial activity. Pharmazie, 1990. 45(6): p. 441-442.
5. Almerico, A.M., et al., Glycosidopyrroles Part 1. Acyclic derivatives: 1-(2-hydroxyethoxy) methylpyrroles as potential anti-viral agents. Il Farmaco, 1998. 53(1): p. 33-40.
6. Schaefer, E.J., et al., Comparisons of effects of statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin) on fasting and postprandial lipoproteins in patients with coronary heart disease versus control subjects. The American journal of cardiology, 2004. 93(1): p. 31-39.
7. Balogun, S.K., et al., Effects of Separate and Combined Chronic Ingestion of Codeine and Tramadol on Self Grooming Behavior of Male and Female Albino Rats. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 2020. 9(3): p. 66-76.
8. Liu, J.K. and W.T. Couldwell, Intra-arterial papaverine infusions for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm induced by aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocritical care, 2005. 2: p. 124-132.
9. Neamati, N., et al., Highly potent synthetic polyamides, bisdistamycins, and lexitropsins as inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase. Molecular Pharmacology, 1998. 54(2): p. 280-290.
10. Deidda, D., et al., Bactericidal activities of the pyrrole derivative BM212 against multidrug-resistant and intramacrophagic Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 1998. 42(11): p. 3035-3037.
11. Kikuchi, C., et al., Tetrahydrobenzindoles: selective antagonists of the 5-HT7 receptor. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 1999. 42(4): p. 533-535.
12. Gujral, S.S., et al., Suzuki cross coupling reaction-a review. Indo Glob. J. Pharm. Sci, 2012. 2: p. 351-367.
13. Hussain, I., J. Capricho, and M.A. Yawer, Synthesis of Biaryls via Ligand‐Free Suzuki–Miyaura Cross‐Coupling Reactions: A Review of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalytic Developments. Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, 2016. 358(21): p. 3320-3349.
14. Wen, X., et al., Privileged heterocycles for DNA-encoded library design and hit-to-lead optimization. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2023: p. 115079.
15. Koperniku, A., N-Silylated amines as valuable synthons in methods development toward pharmaceutically relevant small molecules. 2019, University of British Columbia.
16. Kakhki, S., S. Shahosseini, and A. Zarghi, Design and synthesis of pyrrolo [2, 1-a] isoquinoline-based derivatives as new cytotoxic agents. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR, 2016. 15(4): p. 743.
17. Pashev, A.S., N.T. Burdzhiev, and E.R. Stanoeva, Synthetic Approaches toward the Benzo [a] quinolizidine System. A Review. Organic Preparations and Procedures International, 2016. 48(6): p. 425-467.
18. Awuah, E. and A. Capretta, Strategies and synthetic methods directed toward the preparation of libraries of substituted isoquinolines. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2010. 75(16): p. 5627-5634.
19. Zheng, B., et al., Copper-catalyzed benign and efficient oxidation of tetrahydroisoquinolines and dihydroisoquinolines using air as a clean oxidant. ACS omega, 2018. 3(7): p. 8243-8252.
20. Pesarico, A.P., et al., A novel isoquinoline compound abolishes chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive-like behavior in mice. Behavioural Brain Research, 2016. 307: p. 73-83.
21. Yuan, H.-L., et al., Diverse isoquinolines with anti-inflammatory and analgesic bioactivities from Hypecoum erectum. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2021. 270: p. 113811.
22. Valipour, M., et al., Dual action anti‐inflammatory/antiviral isoquinoline alkaloids as potent naturally occurring anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 agents: A combined pharmacological and medicinal chemistry perspective. Phytotherapy Research, 2023.
23. Springob, K. and T.M. Kutchan, Introduction to the different classes of natural products. Plant-derived natural products: Synthesis, function, and application, 2009: p. 3-50.
24. Mäder, P. and L. Kattner, Sulfoximines as rising stars in modern drug discovery? Current status and perspective on an emerging functional group in medicinal chemistry. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2020. 63(23): p. 14243-14275.
25. Hosseinzadeh, Z., A. Ramazani, and N. Razzaghi-Asl, Anti-cancer nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds. Current Organic Chemistry, 2018. 22(23): p. 2256-2279.
26. Le, M., Applications of Sodium Azide in the Synthesis of Tetrazines and Hydrolysis Reactions. 2021.
27. Gaybullayevna, S.G., SYNTHESIS OF DRUGS FROM NITROGEN HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS. Новости образования: исследование в XXI веке, 2022. 1(5): p. 945-955.
28. Amin, A., et al., A Review on The Medicinal And Industrial Applications of N-Containing Heterocycles. The Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal, 2022. 16(1).
29. Vitaku, E., D.T. Smith, and J.T. Njardarson, Analysis of the structural diversity, substitution patterns, and frequency of nitrogen heterocycles among US FDA approved pharmaceuticals: miniperspective. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 2014. 57(24): p. 10257-10274.
30. Heravi, M.M. and B. Talaei, Ketenes as privileged synthons in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds part 3: six-membered heterocycles, in Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry. 2016, Elsevier. p. 195-291.
31. Elrayess, R., et al., Quinoline–hydrazone hybrids as dual mutant EGFR inhibitors with promising metallic nanoparticle loading: rationalized design, synthesis, biological investigation and computational studies. New Journal of Chemistry, 2022. 46(38): p. 18207-18232.
32. Henary, M., et al., Benefits and applications of microwave-assisted synthesis of nitrogen containing heterocycles in medicinal chemistry. RSC advances, 2020. 10(24): p. 14170-14197.
33. Gatadi, S., T.V. Lakshmi, and S. Nanduri, 4 (3H)-Quinazolinone derivatives: Promising antibacterial drug leads. European journal of medicinal chemistry, 2019. 170: p. 157-172.
34. Zarenezhad, E., M. Farjam, and A. Iraji, Synthesis and biological activity of pyrimidines-containing hybrids: Focusing on pharmacological application. Journal of Molecular Structure, 2021. 1230: p. 129833.
35. Borah, P., et al., Heterocyclic compounds as antimicrobial agents, in Viral, Parasitic, Bacterial, and Fungal Infections. 2023, Elsevier. p. 781-804.
36. Gao, F., et al., Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel sinomenine derivatives as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent. RSC advances, 2022. 12(46): p. 30001-30007.
37. Nicolaou, K.e.C., S.P. Ellery, and J.S. Chen, Samarium diiodide mediated reactions in total synthesis. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2009. 48(39): p. 7140-7165.
38. Trott, O. and A.J. Olson, AutoDock Vina: improving the speed and accuracy of docking with a new scoring function, efficient optimization, and multithreading. J. Comput. Chem., 2010. 31(2): p. 455-461.
39. Dallakyan, S. and A.J. Olson, Small-molecule library screening by docking with PyRx, in Chem. Biol. 2015, Springer. p. 243-250.
40. Anandarajagopal, K., et al., 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole derivatives: synthesis and anticonvulsant activity. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2010. 1(2): p. 132-138.
41. He, Z., et al., Transition-metal-free Suzuki-type cross-coupling reaction of benzyl halides and boronic acids via 1, 2-metalate shift. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2018. 140(7): p. 2693-2699.
42. Khan, I., et al., Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of pyrimidine substituted diaryl ethers through Suzuki Miyaura coupling reactions: Experimental and DFT studies. Optik, 2020. 219: p. 165285.
43. Willard, L., et al., VADAR: a web server for quantitative evaluation of protein structure quality. Nucleic Acids Res., 2003. 31(13): p. 3316-3319.
44. Khan, S., et al., Studies on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of betel nut in rodents. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2011. 135(3): p. 654-661.

Most read articles by the same author(s)