Main Article Content

Nimra Sharif
Nadir Farid
Maheen Iqbal
Moeen Ul Haq
Muhammad Imran Farid
Muhammad Siddique Karimi
Akash Kumar
Ahmed Samir Abdul Elhamid Ahmed Mostafa


Gastric cancer prevention, premalignant lesions, surveillance, retrospective study, demographic characteristics, Helicobacter pylori


Introduction: Gastric cancer poses a significant health burden worldwide, necessitating comprehensive prevention and early detection strategies. This retrospective cross-sectional study, spanning one year, aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a gastric cancer prevention program in Pakistan. The primary focus was on detecting premalignant gastric lesions and implementing a surveillance system for early cancer detection.

Methodology: The study involved a meticulous analysis of data from a selected cohort of 120 participants. Basic demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, biopsy results, and specific variables like genetic predisposition, socioeconomic status, and cultural practices were reviewed. Historical intervention data included health education sessions, dietary counseling, lifestyle recommendations, and Helicobacter pylori testing with eradication therapy. Statistical analysis, utilizing SPSS version 21, employed descriptive statistics and t-tests to identify significant differences among patients with benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions of the upper GI tract.

Results: The findings provided insights into the efficacy of past interventions. Age distribution revealed 20.8% were 40 years and below, 50% were between 41-64 years, and 29.2% were 65 years and above. The majority were female (58.3%), and ethnicity showed diversity. Overweight and obesity prevalence was 58.3%, and 54.2% of participants were in-patients. Gastrointestinal symptoms varied, with heartburn (37.5%) and screening for varices (29.2%) being prominent.

Conclusion: The study contributes valuable insights into gastric cancer prevention in Pakistan. The past intervention program, encompassing education, lifestyle modifications, and H. pylori eradication, shows promise. The findings underscore the importance of tailored strategies considering demographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors.

Abstract 97 | Pdf Downloads 43


1. Rahman R, Asombang AW, Ibdah JA. Characteristics of gastric cancer in Asia. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. 2014 Apr 4;20(16):4483.
2. Singh K, Ghoshal UC. Causal role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric cancer: an Asian enigma. World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG. 2006 Mar 3;12(9):1346.
3. Arnold M, Ferlay J, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Soerjomataram I. Global burden of oesophageal and gastric cancer by histology and subsite in 2018. Gut. 2020 Sep 1;69(9):1564-71.
4. Coupland VH, Lagergren J, Konfortion J, Allum W, Mendall MA, Hardwick RH, Linklater KM, Møller H, Jack RH. Ethnicity in relation to incidence of oesophageal and gastric cancer in England. British journal of cancer. 2012 Nov;107(11):1908-14.
5. Royaidar J, Khalid H, Fatima H. Development of Novel Biomarkers for Early Detection of Cancer. Innovative Research in Applied, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2023 Jul 1;1(1):9-13.
6. Correa P, Piazuelo MB, Camargo MC. The future of gastric cancer prevention. Gastric cancer. 2004 Mar;7: 9-16.
7. Ali A, Manzoor MF, Ahmad N, Aadil RM, Qin H, Siddique R, Riaz S, Ahmad A, Korma SA, Khalid W, Aizhong L. The burden of cancer, government strategic policies, and challenges in Pakistan: A comprehensive review. Frontiers in nutrition. 2022 Jul 22; 9:940514.
8. Sankaranarayanan R, Boffetta P. Research on cancer prevention, detection and management in low-and medium-income countries. Annals of oncology. 2010 Oct 1;21(10):1935-43.
9. Cheung KS, Chan EW, Wong AY, Chen L, Seto WK, Wong IC, Leung WK. Statins were associated with a reduced gastric cancer risk in patients with eradicated Helicobacter pylori infection: A territory-wide propensity score matched study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2020 Feb 1;29(2):493-9.
10. Sankaranarayanan R, Ramadas K, Qiao YL. Managing the changing burden of cancer in Asia. BMC medicine. 2014 Dec;12(1):1-7.
11. Aziz S, König S, Umer M, Akhter TS, Iqbal S, Ibrar M, Ur-Rehman T, Ahmad T, Hanafiah A, Zahra R, Rasheed F. Risk factor profiles for gastric cancer prediction with respect to Helicobacter pylori: A study of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Artificial Intelligence in Gastroenterology. 2023 Jun 8;4(1):10-27.
12. Zaidi SF. Helicobacter pylori associated Asian enigma: Does diet deserve distinction?. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology. 2016 Apr 4;8(4):341.
13. Shah SC, McKinley M, Gupta S, Peek Jr RM, Martinez ME, Gomez SL. Population-based analysis of differences in gastric cancer incidence among races and ethnicities in individuals age 50 years and older. Gastroenterology. 2020 Nov 1;159(5):1705-14.
14. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray F. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. International journal of cancer. 2015 Mar 1;136(5):E359-86.
15. Song Y, Liu X, Cheng W, Li H, Zhang D. The global, regional and national burden of stomach cancer and its attributable risk factors from 1990 to 2019. Scientific Reports. 2022 Jul 7;12(1):11542.
16. Jang J, Lee S, Ko KP, Abe SK, Rahman MS, Saito E, Islam MR, Sawada N, Shu XO, Koh WP, Sadakane A. Association between body mass index and risk of gastric cancer by anatomic and histologic subtypes in over 500,000 East and Southeast Asian Cohort participants. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2022 Sep 2;31(9):1727-34.
17. Wong MC, Huang J, Chan PS, Choi P, Lao XQ, Chan SM, Teoh A, Liang P. Global incidence and mortality of gastric cancer, 1980-2018. JAMA network open. 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2118457-.
18. Ajani JA, D’Amico TA, Bentrem DJ, Chao J, Cooke D, Corvera C, Das P, Enzinger PC, Enzler T, Fanta P, Farjah F. Gastric cancer, version 2.2022, NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. 2022 Feb 1;20(2):167-92.
19. Pasechnikov V, Chukov S, Fedorov E, Kikuste I, Leja M. Gastric cancer: prevention, screening and early diagnosis. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. 2014 Oct 10;20(38):13842.
20. Sitarz R, Skierucha M, Mielko J, Offerhaus GJ, Maciejewski R, Polkowski WP. Gastric cancer: epidemiology, prevention, classification, and treatment. Cancer management and research. 2018 Feb 7:239-48.

Most read articles by the same author(s)