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Ayesha Hussain
Nizwa Itart
Anum Nazir
Sana Arif
Zain Mushtaq
Iqra Khalid
Marzough Aziz Albalawi
Fatema Suliman Alatawi
Mohsen Suliman Alatawi
Abdulrahman Alasmari
Awatif M.E. Omran


Diabetes, Quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa), physico-chemical, Pseudo- cereal


Therapeutic plants and their constituents are increasingly recognized for their potential health advantages and are attracting significant global attention in the context of addressing chronic ailments such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Diabetes is a prevalent condition that has a consistent increase in its overall prevalence. Quinoa, classified as a pseudo-cereal, possesses features that render it a very suitable dietary option for those with diabetes, owing to its notable functional advantages. The present study aimed to analyze the anti-diabetic potential of quinoa and examine its physico-chemical characteristics. For this purpose The nutritional composition of quinoa seeds was examined. The samples exhibit a moisture content of 11.78%, an ash content of 2.50%, a crude fat content of 4.06%, a crude protein content of 12.91%, a crude fiber content of 5.14%, and an NFE (nitrogen-free extract) value of 63.51%. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that these substances are comprised of significant amounts of Magnesium, Calcium, Iron, and Zinc, with concentrations of 326, 650, 14.5, and 45 mg/Kg, respectively. The antioxidant profile exhibited values of 108.17 mg GAE/ml for total phenolic content (TPC), 134.52 ug CE/mL for total flavonoid content (TFC), and 21.21 mg TE/g for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Participants were categorized into three distinct groups based on specific criteria for inclusion and exclusion. These groups were designated as G₁ (n=10, 25g/day), G₂ (n=10, 35g/day), and G₀ (n=10, 0g/day). Group G₀ did not receive quinoa seeds; instead, they were administered their normal medication regimen. During the study, experimental doses were administered to subjects G₁ and G₂ in addition to their regular medication. The subjects' Fasting Glucose (FBS) and Random Glucose (RBS) levels were measured with a one-week interval over a period of 60 days. Additionally, their HbA1c levels were assessed both before and after the completion of the study. The acquired data underwent statistical analysis. The findings indicated a decrease in blood glucose levels. The findings indicated a decrease in blood glucose levels. In group G₂, the fasting blood sugar (FBS) level decreases from an average of 179.4±9.275 to 121.8±9.641. In group G₁, the FBS level decreases from an average of 179.7±7.642 to 162.7±9.654. Conversely, in group G₀, the FBS level experiences a minor shift from an average of 179.9±7.993 to 180.9±7.993. In contrast, the group G₂ exhibited a drop in RBS from 203.4±12.768 to 159.4±12.768, whereas in group G₁, the RBS decreased from 189.4±12.768 to 140.4±12.768, In the experimental group G₁, the mean value of RBS decreased from 189.2±13.059 to 158.2±13.059, whereas in the control group G₀, the mean value of RBS slightly rose from 192.1±12.605 to 191.1±12.605. In the G₂ group, there was a significant drop in HbA1c levels from an initial mean value of 9.95 ± 0.85.

In G₂ group HbA1c decreased from 9.95 ± 0.85 to 5.79 ± 0.80, In G₁ group the HbA1c reduces from 9.95 ± 0.94 to 7.3 ± 0.94, but in G₀ group the value of HbA1c increases from 9.95 ± 0.84 to 9.79 ± 0.80. Consequently, the findings of this study indicate that the consumption of quinoa seeds has a notable effect on the levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), random blood sugar (RBS), and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)

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