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Muhammad Zahid Ali
Rabeea Zia
Danish Daniyal
Sumbal Nosheen
Syed Sohail Ahmad
Sana Sardar
Anis Shahzad Khan
Sumaira Salahuddin Lodhi
Azhar Abbas
Shah Zeb
Ayesha Kousar
Muhammad Naveed


Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV associated biomarkers, polymorphism, envelop gene GP41


Background: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a highly morphic, retrovirus that rapidly evolves through mutation as well as recombination. However, no significant data of sequenced glycoprotein (GP41) of HIV exist in Pakistan due to its fast mutation rate. The purpose of this study is to analyze the polymorphism rate in HIV envelop gene (GP41).

Methodology: The current study was conducted at The University of Haripur, Department of Microbiology. Initially, RNA extraction and reverse transcription were carried out under Punjab AIDS Control Program, the molecular analyses was carried out at the microbiology lab of The University of Haripur. Molecular sequencing was done by the Center for Applied Microbiology (CAMB), Lahore and the blood parameters were analyzed at the Yahya Welfare Complex Haripur, KP, Pakistan.

Results: Out of 57, thirty seven (37) were identified as HIV positive by CMIA method and confirmed by PCR. Out of 37 isolated, 4 (10.8%) isolates carry GP41 gene. GP41 of HIV1 was divided into 2 fragments of 494 bp and 552 bp for PCR amplification, after sequencing process, the resultant sequences were merged to obtain a complete GP41 sequence. Bioinformatic analysis of sequenced data detected substitutions in 11 codon positions. Alanine substitution with threonine, arginine with cysteine, serine with proline, serine with leucine, valine with leucine, serine with alanine were detected. Some of these substitutions were related to enfuvirtide resistance.

Conclusion: This study serves as a platform for healthcare providers to monitor HIV-related clinical biomarkers, preventing early toxicity, improving patient quality of life, and reducing mortality rates. The study's polymorphism analysis reveals substitution points for refined drug design against the frequently mutating envelope gene, enhancing therapeutic resistance coverage.

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