Evaluation Of Bond Strength of Dental Ceramic Materials With Co-Cr Copings Fabricated Using Different DMLS Machines - A Systematic Review

Main Article Content

Divij Khullar
Deepak Nallaswamy
Vinay Sivaswamy
Subhabrata Maiti


DMLS, direct metal laser sintering, debonding, ceramic bonding, adhesion, SLA


Background: New invention made dentistry to a next level . Metal ceramic bonding can be dependent on the technology. Hence the aim of the review is to assess the bond strength of ceramic with cobalt chromium copings fabricated on various DMLS machines.
Materials and Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were applied. A systematic search was conducted by an electronic search in PubMed, Sciencedirect, European PMC, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases. Several others were complemented by a manual search.
Results : A total of 151 papers were screened, with 5 deemed appropriate and the rest failing to meet the Systematic Review's requirements. Majority of them were in vitro trials.The SLM and conventional cast sample groups did not significantly differ in terms of mean bond strength, according to a student t-test conducted within the groups. A mixed fracture pattern was detected by SEM/EDS analysis on the debonding interface of both the SLM and in comparison to the control group in the cast groups, the SLM group showed significantly more porcelain adhesion.
Conclusion: To determine the bonding strength of ceramic to DMLS manufactured co-cr copings, more clinical studies with longer follow-up are needed. 

Abstract 180 | PDF Downloads 133


1. Quante K, Ludwig K, Kern M. Marginal and internal fit of metal-ceramic crowns fabricated with a new laser melting technology. Dent Mater. 2008 Oct;24(10):1311–5.
2. Ucar Y, Akova T, Akyil MS, Brantley WA. Internal fit evaluation of crowns prepared using a new dental crown fabrication technique: laser-sintered Co-Cr crowns. J Prosthet Dent. 2009 Oct;102(4):253–9.
3. Akova T, Ucar Y, Tukay A, Balkaya MC, Brantley WA. Comparison of the bond strength of laser-sintered and cast base metal dental alloys to porcelain. Dent Mater. 2008 Oct;24(10):1400–4.
4. Mello C, Junior JS, Galhano G, Mazaro J, Scotti R, Pellizzer E. Analysis of Vertical Marginal Adaptation of Zirconia Fixed Dental Prosthesis Frameworks Fabricated by the CAD/CAM System: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study [Internet]. Vol. 29, The International Journal of Prosthodontics. 2016. p. 157–60. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/ijp.4285
5. Bhaskaran E, Azhagarasan NS, Miglani S, Ilango T, Krishna GP, Gajapathi B. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal and Internal Gap of Co-Cr Copings Fabricated from Conventional Wax Pattern, 3D Printed Resin Pattern and DMLS Tech: An In Vitro Study. J Indian Prosthodont Soc. 2013 Sep;13(3):189–95.
6. Santos GC Jr, Boksman LL, Santos MJMC. CAD/CAM technology and esthetic dentistry: a case report. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2013 Nov;34(10):764, 766, 768 passim.
7. Nesse H, Ulstein DMÅ, Vaage MM, Øilo M. Internal and marginal fit of cobalt-chromium fixed dental prostheses fabricated with 3 different techniques. J Prosthet Dent. 2015 Nov;114(5):686–92.
8. Barbin T, Velôso DV, Del Rio Silva L, Borges GA, Presotto AGC, Barão VAR, et al. 3D metal printing in dentistry: An in vitro biomechanical comparative study of two additive manufacturing technologies for full-arch implant-supported prostheses. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2020 Aug;108:103821.
9. Badrossamay M, Childs THC. Further studies in selective laser melting of stainless and tool steel powders [Internet]. Vol. 47, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture. 2007. p. 779–84. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2006.09.013
10. Mumtaz KA, Erasenthiran P, Hopkinson N. High density selective laser melting of Waspaloy® [Internet]. Vol. 195, Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2008. p. 77–87. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.04.117
11. Thijs L, Verhaeghe F, Craeghs T, Van Humbeeck J, Kruth JP. A study of the microstructural evolution during selective laser melting of Ti–6Al–4V [Internet]. Vol. 58, Acta Materialia. 2010. p. 3303–12. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2010.02.004
12. Slotwinski JA, Garboczi EJ, Stutzman PE, Ferraris CF, Watson SS, Peltz MA. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing [Internet]. Vol. 119, Journal of Research of the National Institute of
Standards and Technology. 2014. p. 460. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.119.018
13. Slotwinski JA, Stutzman PE, Ferraris CF, Watson SS, Peltz MA, Garboczi EJ. Physical and chemical characterization techniques for metallic powders [Internet]. 2014. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4864954
14. Fiuza C, Fiuza S, Aramfard M, Deng C, França R. Physicochemical characterization of DMLS dental implants [Internet]. Vol. 33, Dental Materials. 2017. p. e31. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2017.08.061
15. Libby G, Arcuri MR, LaVelle WE, Hebl L. Longevity of fixed partial dentures [Internet]. Vol. 78, The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 1997. p. 127–31. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0022-3913(97)70115-x
16. Butz F, Heydecke G, Okutan M, Strub JR. Survival rate, fracture strength and failure mode of ceramic implant abutments after chewing simulation [Internet]. Vol. 32, Journal of Oral Rehabilitation. 2005. p. 838–43. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2005.01515.x
17. Kim B, Zhang Y, Pines M, Thompson VP. Fracture of Porcelain-veneered Structures in Fatigue [Internet]. Vol. 86, Journal of Dental Research. 2007. p. 142–6. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/154405910708600207
18. Lenz J, Schwarz S, Schwickerath H, Sperner F, Schäfer A. Bond strength of metal-ceramic systems in three-point flexure bond test [Internet]. Vol. 6, Journal of Applied Biomaterials. 1995. p. 55–64. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jab.770060108
19. Ringle RD, Mackert JR, Fairhurst CW. An X-ray Spectrometric Technique for Measuring Porcelain-Metal Adherence [Internet]. Vol. 62, Journal of Dental Research. 1983. p. 933–6. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00220345830620081801
20. Zinelis S, Barmpagadaki X, Vergos V, Chakmakchi M, Eliades G. Bond strength and interfacial characterization of eight low fusing porcelains to cp Ti [Internet]. Vol. 26, Dental Materials. 2010. p. 264–73. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2009.11.004
21. Lim HP, Kim JH, Lee KM, Park SW. Fracture load of titanium crowns coated with gold or titanium nitride and bonded to low-fusing porcelain [Internet]. Vol. 105, The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 2011. p. 164–70. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0022-3913(11)60023-1
22. Băilă DI. Corrosion Behavior in Artificial Saliva of Personalized Dental Crowns of Co-Cr Alloys Manufactured by DMLS Process [Internet]. Vols. 799-800, Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2015. p. 515–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.799-800.515
23. Shin MR, Kim MJ, Oh SC. Fracture load and marginal fitness of zirconia ceramic coping by design and coloration [Internet]. Vol. 47, The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics. 2009. p. 406. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4047/jkap.2009.47.4.406
24. Jayaraj G, Sherlin HJ, Ramani P, Premkumar P, Natesan A. Stromal myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders. Indian J Cancer. 2015 Jan;52(1):87–92.
25. Sekhar CH, Narayanan V, Baig MF. Role of antimicrobials in third molar surgery: prospective, double blind,randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001 Apr;39(2):134–7.
26. Khalid W, Varghese SS, Sankari M, Jayakumar ND. Comparison of Serum Levels of Endothelin-1 in Chronic Periodontitis Patients Before and After Treatment. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017 Apr;11(4):ZC78–81.
27. Khalid W, Vargheese SS, Lakshmanan R, Sankari M, Jayakumar ND. Role of endothelin-1 in periodontal diseases: A structured review. Indian J Dent Res. 2016 May;27(3):323–33.
28. Putchala MC, Ramani P, Sherlin HJ, Premkumar P, Natesan A. Ascorbic acid and its pro-oxidant activity as a therapy for tumours of oral cavity -- a systematic review. Arch Oral Biol. 2013 Jun 1;58(6):563–74.
29. Ramesh A, Ravi S, Kaarthikeyan G. Comprehensive rehabilitation using dental implants in generalized aggressive periodontitis. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2017 Mar;21(2):160–3.
30. Padavala S, Sukumaran G. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization and Its Prevalence. Contemp Clin Dent. 2018 Sep;9(Suppl 2):S246–50.
31. Keerthana B, Thenmozhi MS. Occurrence of foramen of huschke and its clinical significance. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2016;9(11):1835–6.
32. Patturaja K, Pradeep D. Awareness of basic dental procedure among general population. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2016;9(9):1349.
33. Krishnan V, Lakshmi T. Bioglass: A novel biocompatible innovation. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2013 Apr;4(2):78–83.
34. Ponnanna AA, Maiti S, Rai N, Jessy P. Three-dimensional-Printed Malo Bridge: Digital Fixed Prosthesis for the Partially Edentulous Maxilla. Contemp Clin Dent. 2021 Dec 21;12(4):451–3.
35. Merchant A, Ganapathy DM, Maiti S. Effectiveness of local and topical anesthesia during gingival retraction [Internet]. Vol. 25, Brazilian Dental Science. 2022. p. e2591. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4322/bds.2022.e2591
36. Aparna J, Maiti S, Jessy P. Polyether ether ketone - As an alternative biomaterial for Metal Richmond crown-3-dimensional finite element analysis. J Conserv Dent. 2021 Nov-Dec;24(6):553–7.
37. Maiti S, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University Chennai, Nadu T, India. Correlation of soft tissue biotype with pink aesthetic score in single full veneer crown [Internet]. Vol. 16, Bioinformation. 2020. p. 1139–44. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.6026/973206300161139
38. Maiti S, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University Chennai, Nadu T, India. Data on dental bite materials with stability and displacement under load [Internet]. Vol. 16, Bioinformation. 2020. p. 1145–51. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.6026/973206300161145
39. Agarwal S, Ashok V, Maiti S, Agarwal V. Dentists’ Preference toward Fixed Versus Removable Implant Prosthesis on Edentulous Jaws to Improve Quality of Life. J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2022;33(1):83–9.
40. Moher D. Corrigendum to: Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. International Journal of Surgery 2010;8:336–341 [Internet]. Vol. 8, International Journal of Surgery. 2010. p. 658. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2010.07.299
41. Băilă DI. Experimental Researches of Co-Cr Alloys Powders Manufactured by Sintering Process DMLS and Ni-Cr Alloys Used in Dentistry [Internet]. Vol. 1119, Advanced Materials Research. 2015. p. 433–7. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.1119.433
42. Özcan M. Fracture reasons in ceramic-fused-to-metal restorations [Internet]. Vol. 30, Journal of Oral Rehabilitation. 2003. p. 265–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2842.2003.01038.x
43. Yoldan EE, Türker N, Büyükkaplan UŞ, Özarslan MM, Karalı R, Deniz AT. Evaluation of the Bond Strengths between Dental Porcelain and Cobalt-Chromium Metal Frameworks Manufactured with Different Techniques after the Thermal Aging Process. Scanning. 2020 Apr 29;2020:9315236.
44. Yenisey M, Külünk Ş, Kaleli N. An Alternative Prosthetic Approach for Rehabilitation of Two Edentulous Maxillectomy Patients: Clinical Report. J Prosthodont. 2017 Jul;26(5):483–8.
45. Suleiman SH, Vult von Steyern P. Fracture strength of porcelain fused to metal crowns made of cast, milled or laser-sintered cobalt-chromium. Acta Odontol Scand. 2013 Sep;71(5):1280–9.
46. Kaleli N, Sarac D, Külünk S, Öztürk Ö. Effect of different restorative crown and customized abutment materials on stress distribution in single implants and peripheral bone: A three-dimensional finite element analysis study. J Prosthet Dent. 2018 Mar;119(3):437–45.
47. Chnadrika P, Practitioner P, Pradesh A, India. Cadcam V/S Conventional Technique For Better Marginal Fit Of Metal Copings From Wax Patterns [Internet]. Vol. 7, International Journal of Advanced Research. 2019. p. 160–6. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/ijar01/9489
48. Lövgren N, Roxner R, Klemendz S, Larsson C. Effect of production method on surface roughness, marginal and internal fit, and retention of cobalt-chromium single crowns. J Prosthet Dent. 2017 Jul;118(1):95–101.
49. Morey EF. Dimensional accuracy of small gold alloy castings. Part 2. Gold alloy shrinkage [Internet]. Vol. 36, Australian Dental Journal. 1991. p. 391–6. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1834-7819.1991.tb01363.x

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>