Molecular Characterization of Carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Erbil, Iraq

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Heshu J. Ahmed
Ahmad H. Ibrahim
Sawsan S. Al-Rawi
Aryan R. Ganjo
Hataw Fryad Saber


Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, OXA-48, NDM-1.


Antimicrobial drugs known as carbapenems are used to treat infections caused by bacteria that produce extended-spectrum -lactamases, such as those found in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Carbapenemases in drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria must be identified and differentiated at the phenotypic and molecular levels for effective infection management. Resistance genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were characterized here by analyzing their phenotypic and genotypic profiles. Genotypic confirmation of carbapenemase synthesis in 98 K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates was found. PCR was used to look for the metallo-beta-lactamase genes OXA-48 and NDM-1 in the collected isolates. The blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 genes were found in 22.45 and 12.24% of the isolates, respectively. The genes for carbapenemase resistance, blaOXA-48, and blaNDM-1, were identified in K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates from the city of Erbil in the Kurdistan area of Iraq.

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