Main Article Content

Abdullah Abdullah
Muhammad Muneeb
Imdadullah Shah
Imtiaz Ullah
Haris Zaman
Khwaja Awais Ahmed
Hammad Saleem


Nap, Nap duration, Medical Students, Academic Performance


This study examined the effects of nap and nap duration on academic performance of medical students at Khyber Medical College, Peshawar, focusing on gender differences. The study period is between March 20, 2024, and April 20, 2024. Participants completed a three-part survey. This survey helps collect students' demographics, nap profiles, and academic profiles. The results indicate that male students who do not nap tend to perceive themselves as more proficient, while female students who nap tend to rate themselves higher. Nap duration also influences proficiency levels differently for each gender. This study found that daytime napping habits and nap lengths affect academic performance differently for male and female medical students. Non-napping males perceive higher proficiency, while napping females rate themselves higher. These findings suggest gender-specific support and intervention strategies to enhance academic success.

Abstract 74 | pdf Downloads 20


[1] F. Dutheil et al., “Effects of a short daytime nap on the cognitive performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 18, no. 19, p. 10212, 2021.
[2] N. J. Williams et al., “Racial/ethnic disparities in sleep health and health care: importance of the sociocultural context,” Sleep Heal., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 28–35, 2015.
[3] M. R. Rosekind et al., “Alertness management: strategic naps in operational settings,” J. Sleep Res., vol. 4, pp. 62–66, 1995.
[4] S. C. Mednick and M. Ehrman, Take a nap!: Change your life. Workman Publishing, 2006.
[5] O. Lahl, C. Wispel, B. Willigens, and R. Pietrowsky, “An ultra short episode of sleep is sufficient to promote declarative memory performance,” J. Sleep Res., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 3–10, 2008.
[6] K. Igloi, G. Gaggioni, V. Sterpenich, and S. Schwartz, “A nap to recap or how reward regulates hippocampal-prefrontal memory networks during daytime sleep in humans,” Elife, vol. 4, p. e07903, 2015.
[7] A. J. Tietzel and L. C. Lack, “The short-term benefits of brief and long naps following nocturnal sleep restriction,” Sleep, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 293–300, 2001.
[8] T. Kubo et al., “Impact of nap length, nap timing and sleep quality on sustaining early morning performance,” Ind. Health, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 552–563, 2007.
[9] M. Singer and J. P. Schadé, Progress in Brain Research, vol. 13. Elsevier, 1963.
[10] A. Huffington, The sleep revolution: Transforming your life, one night at a time. Harmony, 2016.
[11] N. Lovato and L. Lack, “The effects of napping on cognitive functioning,” Prog. Brain Res., vol. 185, pp. 155–166, 2010.
[12] L. Palagini, A. Gemignani, I. Feinberg, M. Guazzelli, and I. G. Campbell, “Mental activity after early afternoon nap awakenings in healthy subjects,” Brain Res. Bull., vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 361–368, 2004.
[13] Y. D. Alqurashi et al., “Association between nap duration and cognitive functions among saudi older adults,” Front. Neurosci., vol. 16, p. 917987, 2022.
[14] R. L. F. Leong, J. C. Lo, and M. W. L. Chee, “Systematic review and meta-analyses on the effects of afternoon napping on cognition,” Sleep Med. Rev., vol. 65, p. 101666, 2022.
[15] M. M. Amin et al., “The effects of a mid-day nap on the neurocognitive performance of first-year medical residents: a controlled interventional pilot study,” Acad. Med., vol. 87, no. 10, pp. 1428–1433, 2012.
[16] G. Ficca, J. Axelsson, D. J. Mollicone, V. Muto, and M. V Vitiello, “Naps, cognition and performance,” Sleep Med. Rev., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 249–258, 2010.
[17] A. Abdullah et al., “Impact of Late Night Sleeping on Academic Performance of KMC and UET Peshawar Students,” Remit. Rev., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1340–1360, 2024.
[18] M. K. Scullin, J. Fairley, M. J. Decker, and D. L. Bliwise, “The effects of an afternoon nap on episodic memory in young and older adults,” Sleep, vol. 40, no. 5, p. zsx035, 2017.
[19] M. Souissi, Y. Souissi, A. Bayoudh, B. Knechtle, P. T. Nikolaidis, and H. Chtourou, “Effects of a 30 min nap opportunity on cognitive and short-duration high-intensity performances and mood states after a partial sleep deprivation night,” J. Sports Sci., vol. 38, no. 22, pp. 2553–2561, 2020.
[20] K. Kaida, Y. Takeda, and K. Tsuzuki, “The relationship between flow, sleepiness and cognitive performance: the effects of short afternoon nap and bright light exposure,” Ind. Health, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 189–196, 2012.
[21] E. Y. Y. Lau, S. McAteer, C. N. W. Leung, M. A. Tucker, and C. Li, “Beneficial effects of a daytime nap on verbal memory in adolescents,” J. Adolesc., vol. 67, pp. 77–84, 2018.
[22] J. Li et al., “Afternoon napping and cognition in Chinese older adults: findings from the China health and retirement longitudinal study baseline assessment,” J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 373–380, 2017.
[23] O. Boukhris et al., “A 90 min daytime nap opportunity is better than 40 min for cognitive and physical performance,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 17, no. 13, p. 4650, 2020.
[24] A. E. Mesas et al., “Is daytime napping an effective strategy to improve sport-related cognitive and physical performance and reduce fatigue? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials,” Br. J. Sports Med., vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 417–426, 2023.
[25] H. Cai, N. Su, W. Li, X. Li, S. Xiao, and L. Sun, “Relationship between afternoon napping and cognitive function in the ageing Chinese population,” Gen. Psychiatry, vol. 34, no. 1, 2021.
[26] J. N. Cousins, R. L. F. Leong, S. A. Jamaluddin, A. S. C. Ng, J. L. Ong, and M. W. L. Chee, “Splitting sleep between the night and a daytime nap reduces homeostatic sleep pressure and enhances long-term memory,” Sci. Rep., vol. 11, no. 1, p. 5275, 2021.

Most read articles by the same author(s)