THE FUTURE OF CANCER CURE: EXPLORING MEDICAL BREAKTHROUGHS AND REVOLUTIONARY TREATMENTS

Main Article Content

Dr. Rama Shankar
Dr. Vineeta Gupta
Dr. Seema Yadav
Dr. R. Amarnath
Bandyopadhyay

Keywords

Cancer cure, Medical breakthroughs, Revolutionary treatments, Immunotherapy, Precision medicine, Personalized treatment

Abstract

Advancements in cancer treatment have transformed the landscape of oncology, offering hope for more effective and personalized therapies. This review delves into the forefront of cancer research, exploring recent breakthroughs and revolutionary treatments that are shaping the future of cancer cure. From immunotherapy, including checkpoint inhibitors and CAR-T cell therapy, to targeted therapies exploiting molecular vulnerabilities, the arsenal against cancer continues to expand. Additionally, innovative approaches such as precision medicine, utilizing genetic and genomic profiling, are revolutionizing treatment strategies, enabling tailored interventions for individual patients. Furthermore, emerging technologies like CRISPR-based gene editing hold promise for targeted gene manipulation and overcoming treatment resistance. Beyond conventional therapies, novel modalities like oncolytic viruses and cancer vaccines are redefining treatment paradigms. By examining these breakthroughs, this review underscores to provide for an in depth analysis of the following objectives-



  • To provide a comprehensive overview of recent advancements in cancer treatment

  • To examine innovative approaches in cancer therapy

  • Assessing personalized medicine

  • Analyzing collaborative efforts between researchers, clinicians, and pharmaceutical companies

  • Highlighting future directions

Abstract 68 | pdf Downloads 32

References

1. Hodi, F. S., O’Day, S. J., McDermott, D. F., Weber, R. W., Sosman, J. A., Haanen, J. B., . . . Urba, W. J. (2010). Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(8), 711–723. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1003466
2. Ribas, A., Puzanov, I., Dummer, R., Schadendorf, D., Hamid, O., Robert, C., . . . Daud, A. (2015). Pembrolizumab versus investigator-choice chemotherapy for ipilimumab-refractory melanoma (KEYNOTE-002): A randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet. Oncology, 16(8), 908–918. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00083-2
3. Schuster, S. J., Bishop, M. R., Tam, C. S., Waller, E. K., Borchmann, P., McGuirk, J. P., . . . JULIET Investigators. (2019). Tisagenlecleucel in adult relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. New England Journal of Medicine, 380(1), 45–56. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1804980
4. Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Weinstein, J. N., Collisson, E. A., Mills, G. B., Shaw, K. R., Ozenberger, B. A., . . . Stuart, J. M. (2013). The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer analysis project. Nature Genetics, 45(10), 1113–1120. doi:10.1038/ng.2764
5. Hyman, D. M., Piha-Paul, S. A., Won, H., Rodon, J., Saura, C., Shapiro, G. I., . . . Solit, D. B. (2018). HER kinase inhibition in patients with HER2- and HER3-mutant cancers. Nature, 554(7691), 189–194. doi:10.1038/nature25475
6. Subbiah, V., Gainor, J. F., Rahal, R., Brubaker, J. D., Kim, J. L., . . . Evans, E. K. (2018). Precision Targeted Therapy with BLU-667 for RET-Driven Cancers. Cancer Discovery, 8(7), 836–849. doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-0338.
7. Peer, D., Karp, J. M., Hong, S., Farokhzad, O. C., Margalit, R., & Langer, R. (2007). Nanocarriers as an emerging platform for cancer therapy. Nature Nanotechnology, 2(12), 751–760. doi:10.1038/nnano.2007.387
8. Aman, R., Ali, Z., Butt, H., Mahas, A., Aljedaani, F., . . . Mahfouz, M. (2018). RNA virus interference via CRISPR/Cas13a system in plants. Genome Biology, 19(1), 1. doi:10.1186/s13059-017-1381-1.
9. Russell, L., Peng, K. W., Russell, S. J., & Diaz, R. M. (2019). Oncolytic Viruses: Priming Time for Cancer Immunotherapy. BioDrugs, 33(5), 485–501. doi:10.1007/s40259-019-00367-0.
10. Andtbacka, R. H., Kaufman, H. L., Collichio, F., Amatruda, T., Senzer, N., Chesney, J., . . . Coffin, R. S. (2015). Talimogene laherparepvec improves durable response rate in patients with advanced melanoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 33(25), 2780–2788. doi:10.1200/JCO.2014.58.3377
11. Chen, M., Mao, A., Xu, M., Weng, Q., Mao, J., & Ji, J. (2019). CRISPR-Cas9 for cancer therapy: Opportunities and challenges. Cancer Letters, 447, 48–55. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2019.01.017.
12. Abbosh, C., Birkbak, N. J., Wilson, G. A., Jamal-Hanjani, M., Constantin, T., Salari, R., . . . Swanton, C. (2017). Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early-stage lung cancer evolution. Nature, 545(7655), 446–451. doi:10.1038/nature22364
13. Cristiano, S., Leal, A., Phallen, J., Fiksel, J., Adleff, V., Bruhm, D. C., . . . Velculescu, V. E. (2019). Genome-wide cell-free DNA fragmentation in patients with cancer. Nature, 570(7761), 385–389. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1272-6
14. Chaudhuri, A. A., Chabon, J. J., Lovejoy, A. F., Newman, A. M., Stehr, H., . . . Diehn, M. (2017). Early Detection of Molecular Residual Disease in Localized Lung Cancer by Circulating Tumor DNA Profiling. Cancer Discovery, 7(12), 1394–1403. doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-17-0716.
15. Hodi, F. S., O’Day, S. J., McDermott, D. F., Weber, R. W., Sosman, J. A., Haanen, J. B., . . . Urba, W. J. (2010). Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(8), 711–723. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1003466
16. Ribas, A., Puzanov, I., Dummer, R., Schadendorf, D., Hamid, O., Robert, C., . . . Daud, A. (2015). Pembrolizumab versus investigator-choice chemotherapy for ipilimumab-refractory melanoma (KEYNOTE-002): A randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet. Oncology, 16(8), 908–918. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00083-2
17. Schuster, S. J., Bishop, M. R., Tam, C. S., Waller, E. K., Borchmann, P., McGuirk, J. P., . . . JULIET Investigators. (2019). Tisagenlecleucel in adult relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. New England Journal of Medicine, 380(1), 45–56. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1804980
18. Hyman, D. M. et al. (2017). Precision oncology: The path to a tailored therapeutic approach. Molecular Cell, 58(6), 872–880.
19. Subbiah, V. et al. (2019). Precision oncology: Lessons learned and challenges for the future. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 76, 10–19.
20. Abbosh, C., Birkbak, N. J., Wilson, G. A., Jamal-Hanjani, M., Constantin, T., Salari, R., . . . Swanton, C. (2017). Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early-stage lung cancer evolution. Nature, 545(7655), 446–451. doi:10.1038/nature22364
21. Cristiano, S., Leal, A., Phallen, J., Fiksel, J., Adleff, V., Bruhm, D. C., . . . Velculescu, V. E. (2019). Genome-wide cell-free DNA fragmentation in patients with cancer. Nature, 570(7761), 385–389. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1272-6
22. Chaudhuri, A. A., Chabon, J. J., Lovejoy, A. F., Newman, A. M., Stehr, H., . . . Diehn, M. (2017). Early Detection of Molecular Residual Disease in Localized Lung Cancer by Circulating Tumor DNA Profiling. Cancer Discovery, 7(12), 1394–1403. doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-17-0716.
23. Peer, D., Karp, J. M., Hong, S., Farokhzad, O. C., Margalit, R., & Langer, R. (2007). Nanocarriers as an emerging platform for cancer therapy. Nature Nanotechnology, 2(12), 751–760. doi:10.1038/nnano.2007.387
24. Chen, H., Zhang, W., Zhu, G., Xie, J., Chen, X., & Rethinking C. (2016). Nanomaterials for cancer therapy: recent advances and future prospects. A.N.D.A. Cancer Letters, 2(2), 11–24.
25. Abbosh, C., Birkbak, N. J., Wilson, G. A., Jamal-Hanjani, M., Constantin, T., Salari, R., . . . & Swanton, C. (2017). Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early-stage lung cancer evolution. Nature, 545(7655), 446–451. doi:10.1038/nature22364
26. Cristiano, S., Leal, A., Phallen, J., Fiksel, J., Adleff, V., Bruhm, D. C., . . . & Velculescu, V. E. (2019). Genome-wide cell-free DNA fragmentation in patients with cancer. Nature, 570(7761), 385–389. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1272-6
27. Chaudhuri, A. A., Chabon, J. J., Lovejoy, A. F., Newman, A. M., Stehr, H., . . . Diehn, M. (2017). Early Detection of Molecular Residual Disease in Localized Lung Cancer by Circulating Tumor DNA Profiling. Cancer Discovery, 7(12), 1394–1403. doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-17-0716.
28. Doudna, J. A., & Charpentier, E. (2014). Genome editing. The new frontier of genome engineering with CRISPR-Cas9. Science, 346(6213), 1258096. doi:10.1126/science.1258096
29. Jinek, M., Chylinski, K., Fonfara, I., Hauer, M., Doudna, J. A., & Charpentier, E. (2012). A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity. Science, 337(6096), 816–821. doi:10.1126/science.1225829
30. Wang, H., La Russa, M., & Qi, L. S. (2016). CRISPR/Cas9 in Genome Editing and Beyond. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 85, 227–264. doi:10.1146/annurev-biochem-060815-014607.
31. Liu, J. K. et al. (2019). CRISPR/Cas: From gene mutations to gene therapies. Briefings in Functional Genomics, 18(1), 36–49.
32. Li, L., & Weinberg, M. S. (2018). CRISPR for cancer therapy. Trends in Cancer, 4(7), 473–475.
33. Hodi, F. S., O’Day, S. J., McDermott, D. F., Weber, R. W., Sosman, J. A., Haanen, J. B., . . . Urba, W. J. (2010). Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(8), 711–723. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1003466
34. Ribas, A., Puzanov, I., Dummer, R., Schadendorf, D., Hamid, O., Robert, C., . . . Daud, A. (2015). Pembrolizumab versus investigator-choice chemotherapy for ipilimumab-refractory melanoma (KEYNOTE-002): A randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet. Oncology, 16(8), 908–918. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00083-2
35. Schuster, S. J., Bishop, M. R., Tam, C. S., Waller, E. K., Borchmann, P., McGuirk, J. P., . . . JULIET Investigators. (2019). Tisagenlecleucel in adult relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. New England Journal of Medicine, 380(1), 45–56. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1804980
36. Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Weinstein, J. N., Collisson, E. A., Mills, G. B., Shaw, K. R., Ozenberger, B. A., . . . Stuart, J. M. (2013). The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer analysis project. Nature Genetics, 45(10), 1113–1120. doi:10.1038/ng.2764
37. Hyman, D. M., Piha-Paul, S. A., Won, H., Rodon, J., Saura, C., Shapiro, G. I., . . . Solit, D. B. (2018). HER kinase inhibition in patients with HER2- and HER3-mutant cancers. Nature, 554(7691), 189–194. doi:10.1038/nature25475
38. Subbiah, V., Gainor, J. F., Rahal, R., Brubaker, J. D., Kim, J. L., . . . Evans, E. K. (2018). Precision Targeted Therapy with BLU-667 for RET-Driven Cancers. Cancer Discovery, 8(7), 836–849. doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-0338.
39. Shi, J. et al. (2017). Nanotechnology in drug delivery and cancer therapy: The first decade. Nano Today, 11(6), 631–651.
40. Jokerst, J. V., Lobovkina, T., Zare, R. N., & Gambhir, S. S. (2011). Nanoparticle PEGylation for imaging and therapy. Nanomedicine, 6(4), 715–728. doi:10.2217/nnm.11.19.
41. Bray, F., Ferlay, J., Soerjomataram, I., Siegel, R. L., Torre, L. A., & Jemal, A. (2018). Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 68(6), 394–424. doi:10.3322/caac.21492
42. Hanahan, D., & Weinberg, R. A. (2011). Hallmarks of cancer: The next generation. Cell, 144(5), 646–674. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.02.013
43. Topalian, S. L., Drake, C. G., & Pardoll, D. M. (2015). Immune checkpoint blockade: A common denominator approach to cancer therapy. Cancer Cell, 27(4), 450–461. doi:10.1016/j.ccell.2015.03.001
44. Garraway, L. A., & Jänne, P. A. (2012). Circumventing cancer drug resistance in the era of personalized medicine. Cancer Discovery, 2(3), 214–226. doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-12-0012
45. Andtbacka, R. H., Kaufman, H. L., Collichio, F., Amatruda, T., Senzer, N., Chesney, J., . . . & Coffin, R. S. (2015). Talimogene laherparepvec improves durable response rate in patients with advanced melanoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 33(25), 2780–2788. doi:10.1200/JCO.2014.58.3377
46. Chen, B., Gilbert, L. A., Cimini, B. A., Schnitzbauer, J., Zhang, W., . . . Huang, B. (2013). Dynamic imaging of genomic loci in living human cells by an optimized CRISPR/Cas system. Cell, 155(7), 1479–1491. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.12.001.
47. Russell, S. J., Peng, K. W., & Bell, J. C. (2012). Oncolytic virotherapy. Nature Biotechnology, 30(7), 658–670. doi:10.1038/nbt.2287