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Syed Abdul Hadi
Jameel Ahmed Gandahi
Muhammad Ghiasuddin Shah
Saima Masood
Noor Samad Gandahi
Ghulam Murtaza Lochi
Muhammad Hayat
Muhammad Farooque Hassan
Tanzeela Farooq
Muhammad Nawaz
Abdul Asim Farooq
Muhammad Usman Saleem
Muhammad Arshad Javid


Heat stress, Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles, Chitosan oligosaccharide, Growth performance, Goblet cells


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) on heat-stressed broiler chickens. D-old 336 birds were divided into seven groups, comprising 6 replicates with eight birds per replicate. G-Group (NC) Negative Control, fed basal diet only; (PC) HS + Positive Control; (HZ) HS + Zinc oxide 60 mg/kg (ZnO); (HZN) HS + ZnO-NPs 60 mg/kg; (HC) HS + COS 200 mg/kg; (HZC) HS + ZnO 60 mg/kg + COS 200 mg/kg;  (HZNC) HS + ZnO-NPs 60 mg/kg + COS 200 mg/kg. An interaction effect (p≤0.05) was observed between ZnO-NPs and COS on parameters such as feed conversion ratio (FCR), body weight gain (BWG), feed consumption, and the relative weight of immune and visceral organs. G-HZNC showed excellent improvements (p≤0.05) in BWG, FCR, and feed conversion ratio. Similarly, the G-HZNC displayed significant improvement (p≤0.05) in the weights of the small intestine, bursa, and cecal tonsil. Furthermore, G-HZNC significantly (p≤0.05) enhanced the duodenum villus structure and goblet cell count (p≤0.05) compared to G-PC. Among the groups, the best results were found in G-HZNC, where the thickness of the lamina propria, muscularis mucosa, and muscularis externa significantly increased (p≤0.05). The antioxidant profile, including enzymes, superoxide dismutase SOD significantly increased (p≤0.05) in G-HZNC compared to G-PC, while glutathione peroxidase GPx and malondialdehyde MDA concentration significantly reduced (p≤0.05) in all dietary groups compared to G-PC. This study concluded that 60 mg/kg of ZnO-NPs with 200 mg/kg of COS mitigated the detrimental impacts of heat stress. This combination enhanced growth performance, duodenal histomorphometry, increased antioxidant enzymatic activity, and serum mineral profile in broiler chickens.

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