ASSOCIATION OF SERUM VITAMIN D WITH SEVERITY, DIETARY HABITS, INFLAMMATORY, AND METABOLIC BIOMARKERS IN COVID-19 PATIENTS: A HOSPITAL-BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYTICAL STUDY

Main Article Content

Shakeel Ahmad
Anita Nyarkoa Walker
Margaret Zaitoun
Doris Abra Awudi
Seba Harphoush
Qing Feng

Keywords

Abstract

Background:Recent studies suggest a link between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 infection, but the conclusions are inconsistent. Therefore, we studied whether vitamin D deficiency could increase the risk for clinical severity and adverse clinical outcomes associated with COVID-19 patients.


Methods:We collected data from 400 patients, including demographic information, principal clinical symptoms, medical history, RT‒PCR findings, laboratory findings, comorbidities, and dietary habits.


Results:Among the patients, 76.3% had a mild and moderate infection, while 23.7% had a critical and severe infection, based on the CDC criteria. Approximately 29.5% were vitamin D sufficient, and the remaining 70.5% of patients were vitamin D insufficient. After adjustments for confounding factors, there was a significant (p=<0.05) association between vitamin D insufficiency and an increase in severity (OR=2.27), age (OR=3.24), BMI (OR=3.73), daily exercise (OR=0.63), sunbathing (OR=0.50), CRP (OR=3.24), serum ferritin (OR=1.73), IL-6 (OR=2.04), TNF-α (OR=2.38), HDL (OR=0.52), triglycerides (OR=1.57), and cholesterol levels (OR=1.66) among COVID-19 patients. A significant association of vitamin D levels with the consumption of marine mammals and fish, vegetables and fruits, meat and eggs, and dairy products was observed.


Conclusion:Taken together, our findings suggest that serum vitamin D levels in the general population, especially hospitalized patients, are negatively associated with the severity of COVID-19 morbidity.


Background:Recent studies suggest a link between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 infection, but the conclusions are inconsistent. Therefore, we studied whether vitamin D deficiency could increase the risk for clinical severity and adverse clinical outcomes associated with COVID-19 patients.


Methods:We collected data from 400 patients, including demographic information, principal clinical symptoms, medical history, RT‒PCR findings, laboratory findings, comorbidities, and dietary habits.


Results:Among the patients, 76.3% had a mild and moderate infection, while 23.7% had a critical and severe infection, based on the CDC criteria. Approximately 29.5% were vitamin D sufficient, and the remaining 70.5% of patients were vitamin D insufficient. After adjustments for confounding factors, there was a significant (p=<0.05) association between vitamin D insufficiency and an increase in severity (OR=2.27), age (OR=3.24), BMI (OR=3.73), daily exercise (OR=0.63), sunbathing (OR=0.50), CRP (OR=3.24), serum ferritin (OR=1.73), IL-6 (OR=2.04), TNF-α (OR=2.38), HDL (OR=0.52), triglycerides (OR=1.57), and cholesterol levels (OR=1.66) among COVID-19 patients. A significant association of vitamin D levels with the consumption of marine mammals and fish, vegetables and fruits, meat and eggs, and dairy products was observed.


Conclusion:Taken together, our findings suggest that serum vitamin D levels in the general population, especially hospitalized patients, are negatively associated with the severity of COVID-19 morbidity.

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