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Atta Ullah
Muhammad Jamil Yousaf
Hifzar Ullah
Imran Ali Babber
Junaid Ahmed
Saira Farman
Panhwer Sana Noor
Momina Sami Khan
Syed Meesam Raza
Jamal Muhammad Khan


Laryngeal cancer (LC), Bradford Hill criteria, Human papillomavirus (HPV)


The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Laryngeal cancer (LC) has been extensively investigated globally, yielding conflicting results. Despite numerous attempts by different research groups to explore the potential association of HPV with LC using statistical metaanalysis, the findings remain controversial due to inherent limitations in meta-analytical approaches. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the potential link between HPV and LC using an alternative method, the Bradford Hill criteria, to provide a clearer perspective. Initially, we conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed to gather all studies associating HPV with LC. Subsequently, we examined the available data on HPV in LC and normal/benign samples, applying the major Bradford Hill criteria postulates to assess the potential association. Additionally, to enhance the reliability of our findings, we critically evaluated the methodologies of the identified studies to assess the risk of false-negative and false-positive results. Following a meticulous assessment of previous studies against the Bradford Hill criteria postulates, it was observed that not all major postulates were fulfilled. Consequently, our findings suggest no causal association between HPV and LC.

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