CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF DIAGNOSTIC BIOMARKERS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

Main Article Content

Sara Zahid
Sampath Chinnam
Basappa C Yallur
Ayesha Zubair
Maria Fareed
Maryam Pervaiz
Zeeshan Akbar
Fatima Zahid

Keywords

Diabetic kidney disease, Signaling cascades, Reactive oxygen species, Glutathione, Tumor necrosis factor Alpha, Superoxide Dismutase

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome marked by an absolute and relative lack of insulin secretion and abnormalities in the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Diabetic kidney damage is the most frequent and common consequence of diabetes mellitus (DM). According to an evidence-based study, oxidative stress caused by weakened antioxidant defences and/or increased production of free radicals plays a role in diabetic disease causation. Fifty patients with diabetic nephropathy were enrolled in this trial from Jinnah Hospital in Lahore. The following oxidative stress biomarkers were identified using spectrophotometric methods: SOD, GSH, Catalase, AOPPs, NO, and MDA. Using commercially available Elisa kits, vitamins (C, E, A, and D) and inflammatory markers (TNF- and IL-6) were examined. Using SPSS version 16, the T-test was used to analyze the results. Patients with diabetic nephropathy had their hematological profiles examined. Unusual alterations were discovered in the platelet count and lymphocytes, which indicate internal inflammation and coagulation. Vitamins A, E, C, and D, as well as antioxidants (SOD, CAT, and GSH-GPx), were reduced. Increases were observed in oxidative and inflammatory markers, including MDA, MPO, and AOPPs. Based on the information available, it is evident that hyperglycemia triggers several signaling pathways and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn triggers additional signaling cascades that lead to structural and functional changes in the kidney that worsen the complications of diabetic nephropathy.


 

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