Main Article Content

Hafiz Muhammad Usman Abid
Muhammad Azeem
Muhammad Qaiser
Maria Tabassum Faqeer
Sobia Abid
Muhammad Shakil
Aisha Khadija
Sana Ronaq
Bilal Ahmad Ghalloo
Umair Khurshid
Khalid Mahmood
Muhammad Hanif


Quercetin, Drug delivery systems, Nanoparticles, Cardiovascular therapy, Lipid-based nanoparticles, Polymer-based nanoparticles, Targeted ligand conjugation


This comprehensive review delves into the utilization of quercetin-based drug delivery systems in cardiovascular therapy, with a primary focus on various nanoparticle strategies, including lipid-based, polymer-based, and other nanocarriers. The investigation aims to assess the potential of these systems in enhancing quercetin's bioavailability, stability, and overall efficacy. Key findings highlight the effectiveness of nanoparticles in targeted delivery to cardiovascular sites and their role in controlled release mechanisms.

Lipid-based nanoparticles play a pivotal role in addressing quercetin's solubility challenges, while their polymer-based counterparts offer adaptability and controlled release capabilities. The exploration extends to alternative nanocarriers such as silica-based and metal-based systems, as well as hybrid nanocarrier approaches. The review discusses various structures like micelles, vesicles, hydrogels, and scaffolds, each contributing to specialized roles in improving quercetin delivery. The strategic use of targeted ligand conjugation emerges as a method to enhance specificity in cardiovascular treatment.

Insights from preclinical animal studies shed light on the effectiveness and safety of quercetin delivery systems, providing a foundation for potential clinical applications. The examination of human trials emphasizes study design elements and outcomes. The review elucidates the mechanisms of quercetin in cardiovascular therapy, encompassing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilatory effects.

Identified challenges, including limitations in bioavailability and safety concerns, set the stage for future collaborative approaches. The review proposes multidisciplinary cooperation and patient-centered strategies to address challenges and expedite clinical translation. Future trends and innovations, such as nanotechnologies, personalized medicine, artificial intelligence, and biomimetic delivery systems, are explored, indicating a promising trajectory for precision in cardiovascular therapy.

In conclusion, optimizing quercetin's therapeutic potential, overcoming delivery challenges, and fostering collaborative strategies emerge as essential implications for advancing cardiovascular therapy.

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