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Respiratory distress, Clinical profile, Neonates
Background and Aim: Respiratory distress frequently leads to admissions in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. There is paucity of data regarding the clinical profile of neonates suffering from respiratory distress. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of respiratory distress among neonates.
Patients and Methods: This prospective study investigated 186 neonates diagnosed of respiratory distress presented to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Mardan Medical Complex, Mardan from January 2022 to December 2022. Patient’s details such as socioeconomic status, demographic details, comprehensive perinatal history, and clinical examination were recorded. Additionally, Mode of delivery, steroid coverage, and risk factors for sepsis were also recorded.
Results: Of the total 186, the incidence of premature neonates was 50.5% (n=94). About 82.9% (n=156) neonates were born through lower segment Caesarean section (LSCS). The key risk factors identified were Cesarean section delivery and maternal infection, accounting for 38.7% (n=72) of cases. Transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia, and Late-onset sepsis was the most prevalent causes of respiratory distress found in 45.2% (n=84), 23.1% (n=43), and 10.8% (n=20) respectively. Respiratory support, including both invasive and non-invasive ventilation, was needed for 30.1% (n=56) of these infants. The mortality rate of infants was 1.1% (n=2) due to severe Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) and delayed hospital referral.
Conclusion: The primary risk factors for respiratory distress include Cesarean section delivery and maternal infection. Significant maternal risk factors included primiparity, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, multiple gestation, and not receiving antenatal steroids in cases of preterm labor. Timely referral and prompt respiratory support significantly contribute to improved outcomes.
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