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Ahsan Ali Memon
Hassan Imran Afridi
Farah Talpur
Tasneem Gul Kazi
Maria Ahsan
Sikander Munir Memon
Syed Shafqat Ali Shah
Asif Ali Soomro
Athar Ali Bhutto


Iron, Gastrointestinal disturbed patients, proton pump inhibitors


Background: prolonged bloating, abdominal discomfort, reflux, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, and discomfort characterize a collection of digestive conditions known as gastric distress. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) remain the superior choice worldwide in antisecretory therapy in the evidence-based treatment of upper gastrointestinal disorders including gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, dyspepsia and peptic ulcer disease.

Methods: To digest the materials, a 2:1 ratio of HNO3 (65%) and H2O2 (30%) has been employed in a microwave oven-assisted digestion process. Elemental concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.

Result: The goal of this research was to evaluate the link between critical trace elements particularly iron" with proton pump inhibitors in samples of biological material, namely blood, serum, and urine of 350 gastrointestinal disturbance patients, who were inhabitants of different cities in Pakistan and ranged in age from 30-45 to 46 years. The biological specimens of reference subjects (n = 135) in the same age ranges have been analyzed for comparison analysis.

Conclusion: In samples from individuals with gastrointestinal disturbances, the mean amount of critical elements (Fe) was observed to be reduced in blood and serum than healthy values, however, these elements were observed to be greater in urine when compared to subjects (p<0.001). The collected information will be useful in the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbance patients, improving their chances of survival.

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