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Surgical site infection, Prevalence, Microorganisms, Hospital stay
Introduction: The problem of surgical site infection (SSI), which contributes to significant morbidity and death, lengthens hospital stays, and ultimately raises healthcare expenditures, is still widespread and common. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of SSI and its risk variables among individuals who underwent any surgical procedure.
Aim and Objective: To Study the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Surgical Site Infections of the patients at a Tertiary Care Centre, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a hospital setting over the period of 1 year i.e,, July 2022 to July 2023 at a tertiary care centre. All surgically treated adult patients of both sexes who were older than 16 years old were included. Patients who received a second surgery at the same location for any reason, patients receiving immunosuppressant medication, people with immunodeficiency diseases, people currently taking antibiotics, and people with infections elsewhere were all disqualified from participating. If there was signs of a wound infection 48 hours after surgery, the patient was diagnosed with SSI. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences), version 21 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY), was used to analyse the data.
Results: A total of 170 patients underwent different types of surgeries. The prevalence of SSIs during the study period was 8.2%. SSIs were more common in abdominal surgeries with the Males (64.2%) have a higher risk of getting SSI than females (35.7%) . Patients who underwent emergency surgery have a higher risk of getting SSI than those who underwent elective surgery . Those with diabetes had a higher risk of getting SSI than those who were non-diabetics. In the present study it was also observed that Klebsiella pneumoniae (28.5%) was the most common isolate followed by E.coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 21.4%, S.aureus with 14.25% and least for Staphylococcus epidermitidis and Klebsiella oxytoca with 7.14%. It was observed that the site of the infection most common affected was the superficial site with 57.1%.
Conclusion: Abdominal surgeries were more likely to result in SSIs. After any type of surgery, patients who were male, with the age group of 30 years or above , had emergency surgery, had diabetes, and/or have had a lengthy hospital stay are more likely to develop SSIs.
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