Main Article Content

Juweria Abid
Dr. Ridhaa Amman Anis
Dr. Hasan Afaq Zaidi
Dr. Madiha Raees
Dr. Syed Muhammad Abdullah Salman
Dr. Saba Izhar


Antibiotic, Resistance, Health, Provide, Patients, Drugs


Introduction: The growth of drug-resistant bacteria is an increasing global public health issue. A key driver in the acceleration of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the overuse and misuse of antibiotics.

Objectives: The basic aim of the study is to find the influences on treatment-seeking and antibiotic use for common illnesses.

Material and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the Public Hospital of Karachi from June 2022 to December 2022. Data was collected from 120 patients. Participants were individually interviewed using a structured questionnaire developed for this study. The questionnaire was designed to capture a wide range of information, including demographic details, health beliefs, knowledge about antibiotics, prior healthcare experiences, and healthcare-seeking behavior.

Results: Data was collected from 120 patients from both genders. The mean age of the participants was 42.5±10.2 years, with a range of ages from 19 to 65. The gender distribution was nearly equal, with 61 participants identifying as female (50.8%) and 59 as male (49.2%). All participants reported experiencing at least one common illness episode within the past year, with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) being the most frequently reported (72.5%), followed by urinary tract infections (UTI, 18.3%), sinusitis (6.7%), and acute bronchitis (2.5%).

Conclusion: It is concluded that the challenge of antibiotic resistance requires a concerted effort involving patients, healthcare providers, and policymakers to promote responsible antibiotic use and preserve the effectiveness of these vital drugs. Comprehensive strategies targeting both patients and healthcare providers are needed to promote responsible antibiotic use and mitigate the threat of antibiotic resistance.

Abstract 320 | PDF Downloads 168


1. Marsh, Stephanie A., et al. "What Influences Parental Decisions about Antibiotic Use with Their Children: A Qualitative Study in Rural Australia." PLOS ONE, vol. 18, no. 7, 2023, p. e0288480,
2. Souto‐López L, Vazquez‐Cancela O, Vazquez‐Lago JM, López‐Durán A, Figueiras A. Parent‐related factors influencing antibiotic use in a pediatric population: a qualitative study in Spain. Acta Paediatr. 2020;109(12):2719–26. pmid:32239527
3. Bosley H, Henshall C, Appleton JV, Jackson D. Understanding antibiotic-seeking behavior: a qualitative case study of mothers of children aged 5 and under. J Adv Nurs. 2022;00:1–10. pmid:35864378
4. Biezen R, Grando D, Mazza D, Brijnath B. Dissonant views—GPs’ and parents’ perspectives on antibiotic prescribing for young children with respiratory tract infections. BMC Fam Pract. 2019;20(1):46. pmid:30922238
5. Lum EPM, Page K, Nissen L, Doust J, Graves N. Australian consumer perspectives, attitudes and behaviors on antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance: a qualitative study with implications for public health policy and practice. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):799. pmid:29017473
6. Hawking MKD, Lecky DM, Touboul Lundgren P, Aldigs E, Abdulmajed H, Ioannidou E, et al. Attitudes and behaviors of adolescents towards antibiotics and self-care for respiratory tract infections: a qualitative study. BMJ Open. 2017;7(5):e015308–e. pmid:28592579
7. Flayelle M, Brevers D, Billieux J. Commentary on Englund et al. The advantages and downsides of online focus groups for researching addictive online behaviors. Addiction (Abingdon, England). 2022;117(8):2142–4.
8. Namey E, Guest G, McKenna K, Chen M. Evaluating bang for the buck: a cost-effectiveness comparison between individual interviews and focus groups based on thematic saturation levels. Am J Eval. 2016;37(3):425–40.
9. Zhang, Tingting, et al. "Influences on Treatment-seeking and Antibiotic Use for Common Illnesses in Eastern China." BMC Public Health, vol. 23, 2023,
10. Pokharel S, Raut S, Adhikari B. Tackling antimicrobial resistance in low-income and middle-income countries. BMJ Specialist J. 2019;4:e002104.
11. Qu J, Huang Y, Lv X. Crisis of Antimicrobial Resistance in China: Now and the Future. Front Microbiol. 2019;10:2240. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.02240.
12. Wang S, Hu YJ, Little P, Wang Y, Chang Q, Zhou X, et al. The impact of the national action plan on the epidemiology of antibiotic resistance among 352,238 isolates in a teaching hospital in China from 2015 to 2018. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2019;8(1):22. doi: 10.1186/s13756-019-0473-y.
13. Lin L, Fearon E, Harbarth S, Wang X, Lu C, Zhou X, et al. Decisions to use antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections across China: a large-scale cross-sectional survey among university students. BMJ Open. 2020;10(8):e039332. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039332
14. Yu M, Zhao G, Stålsby Lundborg C, Zhu Y, Zhao Q, Xu B. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of parents in rural China on the use of antibiotics in children: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14(1):112. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-112.
15. Bianco A, Licata F, Zucco R, Papadopoli R, Pavia M. Knowledge and practices regarding antibiotics use Findings from a cross-sectional survey among Italian adults. Evol Med Public Health. 2020;2020(1):129–138. doi: 10.1093/emph/eoaa028.
16. Diao M, Shen X, Cheng J, Chai J, Feng R, Zhang P, et al. How patients' experiences of respiratory tract infections affect healthcare-seeking and antibiotic use: insights from a cross-sectional survey in rural Anhui, China. BMJ Open. 2018;8(2):e019492. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019492
17. Li X, Lu J, Hu S, Cheng KK, De Maeseneer J, Meng Q, et al. The primary healthcare system in China. Lancet. 2017;390(10112):2584–2594. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)33109-4
18. Cai S, Wang N, Xu L, Yan F, Jiang Q, Zhao X, et al. Impacts of Antibiotic Residues in the Environment on Bacterial Resistance and Human Health in Eastern China: An Interdisciplinary Mixed-Methods Study Protocol. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(13):8145.
19. Torres NF, Solomon VP, Middleton LE. Patterns of self-medication with antibiotics in Maputo City: a qualitative study. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2019;8:161. doi: 10.1186/s13756-019-0618-z
20. Kotwani A, Joshi J, Lamkang AS, Sharma A, Kaloni D. Knowledge and behavior of consumers towards the non-prescription purchase of antibiotics: An insight from a qualitative study from New Delhi, India. Pharm Pract (Granada) 2021;19(1):2206. doi: 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.1.2206.