PREVALENCE OF OSTEOPOROSIS IN LOW ECONOMIC COUNTRIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

Main Article Content

Ahmed Abdelaziz Abdelkader Elgohary
Ahmed Gad Ragheb Abdelbaky
Mahantesh Magadum
Moataz Ibrahim Mohammed Abdelfattah
Nasrullah Aamer
Niaz Hussain Keerio

Keywords

Prevalence, meta-analysis, osteoporosis, bone disorders, systematic review

Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis, a prevalent metabolic condition, is defined by reduced bone strength and represents a significant contributor to bone fractures, especially in the older demographic. Despite its prevalence, there is currently insufficient synthesized evidence regarding its distribution and occurrence in the population under study, necessitating comprehensive research in this area.


Objective: The primary objective of this systematic review and subsequent meta-analysis was to determine and synthesize the prevalence of osteoporosis within the studied adult population. The study sought to fill the knowledge gap surrounding osteoporosis and provide valuable insights for healthcare policy decision-making.


Study design: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Methodology: A thorough systematic search, adhering to predefined standardized criteria, was conducted across several electronic databases, including authentic articles and journals. A systematic review followed the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology, focusing on osteoporosis prevalence in adults aged 18 and above via Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurements (DEXA and heel ultrasound). It included general population, school, and hospital surveys but excluded inaccessible texts, duplicates, modeling studies, and more. Data was extracted by two independent reviewers using a standardized tool. Findings were synthesized narratively, with meta-analysis when possible, using R software. Subgroup analyses and heterogeneity assessment were conducted, along with publication bias evaluation.


Results: This review examined 7 selected articles from an initial pool of 520 papers. The region's osteoporosis data scarcity is due to a lack of registries and diagnostic resources, with few DXA machines in urban areas. Recent hospital-based studies mainly used heel ultrasound, lacking DXA data. There was a different prevalence of osteoporosis in different time frames. It was 12.9% in 2007, 6.7% in 2009, it was between 24-48% in 2010. Furthermore, it was 27% in 2011, 17.8% in 2012 and in 2015 it was 28.6%


Conclusion: This comprehensive study provides a vital estimate of osteoporosis prevalence and highlights the pressing need for healthcare policy adjustments and the provision of necessary resources to address this public health concern. Enhanced accessibility to healthcare services and increased focus on health systems and policy research are essential for promoting osteoporosis screening and treatment.

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