Main Article Content

Maria Shahzad
Hamid Iqbal
Mahin Akbar
Hajira Ahmad
Syeda Huma Abid
Mamoon Qadir
Muhammad Zarar Khan
Amna Akbar
Raja Muhammad Ijaz Khan
Sarosh Khan Jadoon


Consumption, Garlic, Hyperlipidemia


Introduction: The lipid profile has been reported high in people suffering from hyperlipidemias. Garlic can act as a shield against cancer, aging and chronic disorders like cardiovascular disorder.

Methodology: Randomized Control Trial (RCT) approach was used; patients with CVDS along with other diseases like diabetes and arthritis were excluded. 50 members were selected for each group.

Results: The mean values of lipid profile calculated for the two groups are 356.46 mg/dl and 257.46 mg/dl respectively. BMI differed significantly between the garlic (P < 0.03), and non-garlic (P < 0.06) groups. According to t-test the value of t is 5.66, and the critical values of t are 1.67 and 2.00 for t-critical (one tailed and two tailed respectively).

Conclusion: The study suggests that consuming raw garlic has a positive effect on lipid profiles in patients with hyperlipidemias. The results showed a significant reduction in blood cholesterol after consuming raw garlic for 42 days. Due to the smaller size of the study, we were unable to generalize the results. To determine optimal garlic consumption, further research is needed.

Abstract 70 | pdf Downloads 16


1. Aslani, N. et al. (2016) ‘Effect of Garlic and Lemon Juice Mixture on Lipid Profile and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in People 30-60 Years Old with Moderate Hyperlipidaemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial’, International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 7, p. 95. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4103/2008-7802.187248.
2. Gómez-Arbeláez, D. et al. (2013) ‘Aged garlic extract improves adiponectin levels in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study.’, Mediators of inflammation, 2013, p. 285795. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/285795.
3. Hyperlipidemia (High Cholesterol): Levels, Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis (no date). Available at: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/21656-hyperlipidemia (Accessed: 10 September 2023).
4. Jennifer Moll, P. (2023) Does Garlic Lower Cholesterol? Available at:
5. Mahdavi-Roshan, M., Rismanchi, M. and Nasrollahzadeh, J. (2016) ‘Garlic tablet supplementation reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells’, European Journal of Inflammation, 14, pp. 190–195. Available at: https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:78729547.
6. Motteshard, T.M. (no date) CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF GARLIC. Available at: https://www.herballegacy.com/Motteshard_Chemical.html (Accessed: 10 September 2023).
7. www.mashed.com (no date) The Reason Garlic Was Called ‘Russian Penicillin’ In WWII. Available at: https://www.mashed.com/899977/the-reason-garlic-was-called-russian-penicillin-in-wwii/.
8. Adler, A. J., & Holub, B. J. (1997). Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 65(2), 445-450.
9. Agarwala, A., Petersen, K., Jafari, F., & Kris-Etherton, P. M. (2022). Dietary management of dyslipidemia and the impact of dietary patterns on lipid disorders. Progress in cardiovascular diseases.
10. Ajamzibad, H., Beydokhti, T. B., Mohtasham, F., & Nematollahi, M. R. (2021). Effects of boiled garlic and Shirazi lemon on blood lipids in hyperlipidemic patients: A quasi-experimental study. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 28, 100439.
11. Ashraf, R., Aamir, K., Shaikh, A. R., & Ahmed, T. (2005). Effects of garlic on dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, 17(3), 60-64.
12. Atkin, M., Laight, D., & Cummings, M. H. (2016). The effects of garlic extract upon endothelial function, vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in adults with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk. A pilot double blind randomized placebo controlled trial. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 30(4), 723-727.
13. Ayaz, E., Turel, I., Gul, A., & Yilmaz, O. (2008). Evaluation of the anthelmentic activity of garlic (Allium sativum) in mice naturally infected with Aspiculuris tetraptera. Recent patents on anti-infective drug discovery, 3(2), 149-152.
15. Badimon, L., & Vilahur, G. (2014). Thrombosis formation on atherosclerotic lesions and plaque rupture. Journal of internal medicine, 276(6), 618-632.
16. Ballantyne, C. M., Grundy, S. M., Oberman, A., Kreisberg, R. A., Havel, R. J., Frost, P. H., & Haffner, S. M. (2000). Hyperlipidemia: diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 85(6), 2089-2112.
17. Banerjee, S. K., & Maulik, S. K. (2002). Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review. Nutrition journal, 1(1), 1-14.
18. Berná, G., & Romero‐Gomez, M. (2020). The role of nutrition in non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease: pathophysiology and management. Liver International, 40, 102-108.
19. Bhandari, P. R. (2012). Garlic (Allium sativum L.): A review of potential therapeutic applications. International Journal of Green Pharmacy (IJGP), 6(2).
20. Block, E. (1985). The chemistry of garlic and onions. Scientific american, 252(3), 114-121.
21. Butt, M. S., Sultan, M. T., Butt, M. S., & Iqbal, J. (2009). Garlic: nature's protection against physiological threats. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 49(6), 538-551.
22. Campbell, S. C., Moffatt, R. J., & Stamford, B. A. (2008). Smoking and smoking cessation—the relationship between cardiovascular disease and lipoprotein metabolism: a review. Atherosclerosis, 201(2), 225-235.
23. Chi, M. S. (1982). Effects of garlic products on lipid metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 171(2), 174-178.
24. Chi, M. S., Koh, E. T., & Stewart, T. J. (1982). Effects of garlic on lipid metabolism in rats fed cholesterol or lard. The Journal of nutrition, 112(2), 241-248.
25. Chiavaroli, L., Nishi, S. K., Khan, T. A., Braunstein, C. R., Glenn, A. J., Mejia, S. B., . . . Jenkins, D. J. (2018). Portfolio dietary pattern and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 61(1), 43-53.
26. Chiu, S., Bergeron, N., Williams, P. T., Bray, G. A., Sutherland, B., & Krauss, R. M. (2016). Comparison of the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet and a higher-fat DASH diet on blood pressure and lipids and lipoproteins: a randomized controlled trial–3. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 103(2), 341-347.
27. Deglin, J., & Vallerand, A. (1999). Davis's drug guidefor nurses: Philadelphia: FA Davis Company.
28. Faxon, D. P., Fuster, V., Libby, P., Beckman, J. A., Hiatt, W. R., Thompson, R. W., . . . Fabunmi, R. P. (2004). Atherosclerotic vascular disease conference: writing group III: pathophysiology. Circulation, 109(21), 2617-2625.
29. Heshmat-Ghahdarijani, K., Soltani, R., Ghanadian, S. M., & Soleymani, H. (2022). The effect of Allium hirtifolium bulb on serum lipid profile in adult patients with hyperlipidemia: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 101654.
30. Hill, M. F., & Bordoni, B. (2021). Hyperlipidemia StatPearls [Internet]: StatPearls Publishing.
31. Huang, J., Frohlich, J., & Ignaszewski, A. P. (2011). The impact of dietary changes and dietary supplements on lipid profile. Canadian Journal of cardiology, 27(4), 488-505.
32. Ide, N., & Lau, B. H. (1997). Garlic compounds protect vascular endothelial cells from oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced injury. Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, 49(9), 908-911.
33. Imaizumi, V. M., Laurindo, L. F., Manzan, B., Guiguer, E. L., Oshiiwa, M., Otoboni, A. M. M. B., . . . Barbalho, S. M. (2022). Garlic: A systematic review of the effects on cardiovascular diseases. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 1-23.
34. Kamanna, V., & Chandrasekhara, N. (1982). Effect of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) on serum lipoproteins and lipoprotein cholesterol levels in albino rats rendered hypercholesteremic by feeding cholesterol. Lipids, 17(7), 483-488.
35. Kamanna, V., & Chandrasekhara, N. (1984). Hypocholesteremic activity of different fractions of garlic. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 79(April), 580-583.
36. Koch, H. P., & Lawson, L. D. (1996). Garlic: the science and therapeutic application of Allium sativum L. and related species: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
37. Kojuri, J., Vosoughi, A. R., & Akrami, M. (2007). Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients. Lipids in Health and Disease, 6(1), 1-5.
38. Kreisberg, R. A., & Oberman, A. (2003). Medical management of hyperlipidemia/dyslipidemia. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88(6), 2445-2461.
39. Lawson, L. D. (1998). Garlic: a review of its medicinal effects and indicated active compounds. Blood, 179, 62.
40. Li, S., Guo, W., Lau, W., Zhang, H., Zhan, Z., Wang, X., & Wang, H. (2022). The association of garlic intake and cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 1-19.
41. Lu, Y., He, Z., Shen, X., Xu, X., Fan, J., Wu, S., & Zhang, D. (2012). Cholesterol-lowering effect of allicin on hypercholesterolemic ICR mice. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2012.
42. Macpherson, L. J., Geierstanger, B. H., Viswanath, V., Bandell, M., Eid, S. R., Hwang, S., & Patapoutian, A. (2005). The pungency of garlic: activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin. Current Biology, 15(10), 929-934.
43. Mathew, B. C., Daniel, R. S., & Augusti, K. (1996). Hypolipidemic effect of garlic protein substituted for casein in diet of rats compared to those of garlic oil. Indian journal of experimental biology, 34(4), 337-340.
44. Moyers, S. B. (1996). Garlic in health, history, and world cuisine: Suncoast Press.
45. Nelson, R. H. (2013). Hyperlipidemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 40(1), 195-211.
46. Nirosha, K., Divya, M., Vamsi, S., & Sadiq, M. (2014). A review on hyperlipidemia. International Journal of Novel Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(5), 81-92.
47. Pinto, J., & Rivlin, R. (1999). Garlic and other allium vegetables in cancer prevention. Nutritional oncology, 393-403.
48. Qasim, M., Bukhari, S. A., Ghani, M. J., Masoud, M. S., Huma, T., Arshad, M., . . . Rajoka, M. I. (2016). Relationship of oxidative stress with elevated level of DNA damage and homocysteine in cardiovascular disease patients. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 29.
49. Qureshi, A. A., Din, Z., Abuirmeileh, N., Burger, W., Ahmad, Y., & Elson, C. (1983). Suppression of avian hepatic lipid metabolism by solvent extracts of garlic: impact on serum lipids. The Journal of nutrition, 113(9), 1746-1755.
50. Rahman, K. (2001). Historical perspective on garlic and cardiovascular disease. The Journal of nutrition, 131(3), 977S-979S.
51. Rahman, K., & Lowe, G. M. (2006). Garlic and cardiovascular disease: a critical review. The Journal of nutrition, 136(3), 736S-740S.
52. Raman, P., DeWitt, D. L., & Nair, M. G. (2008). Lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities of acidic aqueous extracts of some dietary supplements. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 22(2), 204-212.
53. results, L. R. C. C. P. P. T. (1984). II. The relationship of reduction in incidence of coronary heart disease to cholesterol lowering. Jama, 251(3), 365-374.
54. Riddle, J. M., & Holland, B. (1996). The medicines of Greco-Roman antiquity as a source of medicines for today. Prospecting for Drugs in Ancient and Medieval European Texts: A Scientific Approach, 7-17.
55. Riviin, R. (1998). Patient with hyperlipidemia who received garlic supplements. Lipid Management. Report from the Lipid education council, 3, 6-7.
56. Rusli, R., Sadarman, S., Hidayat, C., Sholikin, M., Hilmi, M., Yuniza, A., . . . Irawan, A. (2022). A meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of garlic supplementation on performance and blood lipids profile of broiler chickens. Livestock Science, 263, 105022.
57. Sharma, M., Gupta, A., & Prasad, R. (2017). A review on herbs, spices and functional food used in diseases. International Journal of Research & Review, 4(1), 103-108.
58. Silagy, C., & Neil, A. (1994). Garlic as a lipid lowering agent—a meta-analysis. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 28(1), 39.
59. Singh, B. B., Vinjamury, S. P., Der-Martirosian, C., Kubic, E., Mishra, L. C., Shepard, N. P., . . . Madhu, S. G. (2007). Ayurvedic and collateral herbal treatments for hyperlipidemia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs. Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet].

Most read articles by the same author(s)