Does haematological parameters can be used as an indicator for long term prognosis following treatment for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A review

Main Article Content

Chenchulakshmi G
Arvind Muthukrishnan

Keywords

Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, Lymphocyte-monocyte ratio and Platelet-lymphocyte ratio, Prognosis

Abstract

Oral cancer includes a group of neoplasms affecting any region of the oral cavity, pharyngeal regions and salivary glands.This term is used interchangeably with oral squamous cell carcinoma which represents the most frequent of all oral neoplasms.Despite the advances of therapeutic approaches, percentages of morbidity and mortality of OSCC have not improved significantly during the last 30 years.Database search was done in Pubmed,Cochrane library.Grey literature was also included.Search terms such as oral squamous cell carcinoma, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte-monocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio and prognosis were used.The aim of this review was to investigate whether haematological parameters can be used as an indicator for long term prognosis following treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Abstract 140 | PDF Downloads 125

References

1. Choi S, Myers JN. Molecular Pathogenesis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Implications for Therapy. Journal of Dental Research 2008;87:14–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/154405910808700104.
2. Saluja TS. Peer Review #2 of “Susceptibility of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) H103 and H376 cell lines to Retroviral OSKM mediated reprogramming (v0.1)” 2017. https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.3174v0.1/reviews/2.
3. Grimm M, Cetindis M, Biegner T, Lehman M, Munz A, Teriete P, et al. Serum vitamin D levels of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and expression of vitamin D receptor in oral precancerous lesions and OSCC. Medicina Oral Patología Oral Y Cirugia Bucal 2015:e188–95. https://doi.org/10.4317/medoral.20368. 4. Pindborg JJ, Reichart PA, Smith CJ, van der Waal I. Histological Typing of Cancer and Precancer of the Oral Mucosa: In Collaboration with L.H.Sobin and Pathologists in 9 Countries. Springer Science & Business Media; 2012.
5. Pindborg JJ. Oral Cancer and Precancer. Butterworth-Heinemann; 1980.
6. Omar EA. The Outline of Prognosis and New Advances in Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC): Review of the Literature. Journal of Oral Oncology 2013;2013:1–13. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/519312.
7. Kahn MA, Michael Hall J. The ADA Practical Guide to Soft Tissue Oral Disease. John Wiley & Sons; 2018.
8. Mehrotra R, Yadav S. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: etiology, pathogenesis and prognostic value of genomic alterations. Indian J Cancer 2006;43:60–6.
9. Asio J, Kamulegeya A, Banura C. Survival and associated factors among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Cancers of the Head & Neck 2018;3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41199-018-0036-6.
10. M S, Sriram M. Examination of Oral Cavity. SRB’s Clinical Methods in Surgery 2010:225–225. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp/books/11376_10.
11. Newell GR, Krementz ET, Roberts JD. Excess occurrence of cancer of the oral cavity, lung, and bladder following cancer of the cervix. Cancer 1975;36:2155–8. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.2820360933.
12. Hashibe M. Risk Factors for Cancer of the Mouth: Tobacco, Betel Quid, and Alcohol. Textbook of Oral Cancer 2020:23–30. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32316-5_3.
13. Institute NC, National Cancer Institute. Experimental Pathology, Other Than Tumors. Definitions 2020. https://doi.org/10.32388/ug7far.
14. Jayaraman S, Pazhani J, PriyaVeeraraghavan V, Raj AT, Somasundaram DB, Patil S. PCNA and Ki67: Prognostic proliferation markers for oral cancer. Oral Oncol 2022;130:105943.
15. Website n.d. Azima Hanin S.M., Dharman S., Smiline Girija A.S. 57202821821;57133066200;55343834900; Association of salivary microbes with oral mucositis among patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy in head and neck cancer: A hospital-based prospective study 2022 Journal of International Oral Health 14 1 53 60 1 10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_161_21 https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=
2-s2.0-85125491121&doi=10.4103%2fJIOH.JIOH_161_21&partnerID=40&md5=1a65a061f9be5364d63650adf8874107 Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India; Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai600077, India; Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India Azima Hanin, S.M., Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India; Dharman, S., Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai600077, India; Smiline Girija, A.S., Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India Dharman, S.; Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Chennai, India; email: sanjamrut@gmail.com Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications 9767428 English J. Int. Oral Health Article Final Scopus 2-s2.0-85125491121.
16. Website n.d. Subramaniam N., Muthukrishnan A. 57196456666;56587686600; Oral mucositis and microbial colonization in oral cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy: A prospective analysis in a tertiary care dental hospital 2019 Journal of investigative and clinical dentistry 10 4 e12454 49 10.1111/jicd.12454 https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85075814989&doi=10.1111%2fjicd.12454&partnerID=40&md5=f5981f48bd2985dee4cb03a051047fd5 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, India Subramaniam, N., Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, India; Muthukrishnan, A., Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, India NLM (Medline) 20411626 31454171 English J Investig Clin Dent Article Final Scopus 2-s2.0-85075814989.
17. Website n.d. Gajendran P., Parthasarathy H., Tadepalli A. 56554096900;56089591500;55979366600; Comparative evaluation of cathepsin K levels in gingival crevicular fluid among smoking and nonsmoking patients with chronic periodontitis 2018 Indian Journal of Dental Research 29 5 588 593 45 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_95_17 https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85056171729&doi=10.4103%2fijdr.IJDR_95_17&partnerID=40&md5=c3064fd2f45565c35925d5d312a818d7 Department of Periodontology, Saveetha Dental College, No. 162, Poonamalee High Road, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600 077, India; Department of Periodontology, SRM Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Gajendran, P., Department of Periodontology, Saveetha Dental College, No. 162, Poonamalee High Road, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600 077, India; Parthasarathy, H., Department of Periodontology, SRM Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India; Tadepalli, A., Department of Periodontology, SRM Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Gajendran, P.; Department of Periodontology, No. 162, Poonamalee High Road, India; email: priyalochana.87@gmail.com Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications 9709290 30409937 English Indian J. Dent. Res. Article Final All Open Access, Gold Scopus 2-s2.0-85056171729.
18. Website n.d. Vadivel J.K., Govindarajan M., Somasundaram E., Muthukrishnan A. 56003898700;57212058689;57191852097;56587686600; Mast cell expression in oral lichen planus: A systematic review 2019 Journal of investigative and clinical dentistry 10 4 e12457 44 10.1111/jicd.12457 https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85075812928&doi=10.1111%2fjicd.12457&partnerID=40&md5=d4a0ecbd1db85da082a67ad0dc3edbc1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, India; R&D Histopath Labs, Chennai, India; Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, KSR Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Tiruchengode, India Vadivel, J.K., Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, India;
Govindarajan, M., R&D Histopath Labs, Chennai, India; Somasundaram, E., Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, KSR Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Tiruchengode, India; Muthukrishnan, A., Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, India NLM (Medline) 20411626 31454180 English J Investig Clin Dent Review Final Scopus 2-s2.0-85075812928.
19. Website n.d. Kavarthapu A., Gurumoorthy K. 57196457750;26432092700; Linking chronic periodontitis and oral cancer: A review 2021 Oral Oncology 121 105375 36 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2021.105375 https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85109036400&doi=10.1016%2fj.oraloncology.2021.105375&partnerID=40&md5=fbc48a1e114e075ceaaa8d8548fef017 Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, India Kavarthapu, A., Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, India; Gurumoorthy, K., Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, India Kavarthapu, A.37-1-10, Ramnagar 2nd lane, O, pposite Lakshmi Homes Apartment, Ongole, Prakasam District, India; email: avin_sourav@hotmail.com Elsevier Ltd 13688375 EJCCE 34140233 English Oral Oncol. Letter Final Scopus 2-s2.0-85109036400.
20. Website n.d. Sarode S.C., Gondivkar S., Sarode G.S., Gadbail A., Yuwanati M. 26634224100;26324895400;35362850500;36058677700;55798461300; Hybrid oral potentially malignant disorder: A neglected fact in oral submucous fibrosis 2021 Oral Oncology 121 105390 36 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2021.105390 https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85108992849&doi=10.1016%2fj.oraloncology.2021.105390&partnerID=40&md5=a92a5e825900d5e2dff8a0e2e6e0c832 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Sant-Tukaram Nagar, Pimpri, Pune, MH 411018, India; Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Government Dental College & Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India; Department of Dentistry, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College & Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India; Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, 600077, India Sarode, S.C., Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Sant-Tukaram Nagar, Pimpri, Pune, MH 411018, India; Gondivkar, S., Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Government Dental College & Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India; Sarode, G.S., Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Sant-Tukaram Nagar, Pimpri, Pune, MH 411018, India; Gadbail, A., Department of Dentistry, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College & Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India; Yuwanati, M., Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, 600077, India Sarode, S.C.; Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Sant-Tukaram Nagar, Pimpri, India; email: drsachinsarode@gmail.com Elsevier Ltd 13688375 EJCCE 34147361 English Oral Oncol. Letter Final Scopus 2-s2.0-85108992849.
21. Website n.d. Patil S.R., Yadav N., Al-Zoubi I.A., Maragathavalli G., Sghaireen M.G., Gudipaneni R.K., Alam M.K. 55550332800;55521074700;56631777500;25960216500;55659655400;56114993800;7401492628; Comparative study of the efficacy of newer antioxitands lycopene and oxitard in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis 2018 Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clinica Integrada 18 1 e4059 16 10.4034/PBOCI.2018.181.67 https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85048468713&doi=10.4034%2fPBOCI.2018.181.67&partnerID=40&md5=d10b011a8bdf9d1e71b934fcfef3d6c9 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, College of Dentistry, Al-Jouf University, Saudi Arabia; Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India; Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Al-Jouf University, Saudi Arabia; Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and University, Chennai, TamilNadu, India; Department of Prosthodontics, College of
Dentistry, Al-Jouf University, Saudi Arabia; Department of Pedodontics, College of Dentistry, Al-Jouf University, Saudi Arabia; Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, Al-Jouf University, Saudi Arabia Patil, S.R., Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, College of Dentistry, Al-Jouf University, Saudi Arabia; Yadav, N., Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India; Al-Zoubi, I.A., Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Al-Jouf University, Saudi Arabia; Maragathavalli, G., Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and University, Chennai, TamilNadu, India; Sghaireen, M.G., Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, Al-Jouf University, Saudi Arabia; Gudipaneni, R.K., Department of Pedodontics, College of Dentistry, Al-Jouf University, Saudi Arabia; Alam, M.K., Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, Al-Jouf University, Saudi Arabia Patil, S.R.; Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saudi Arabia; email: drpsantosh@gmail.com Association of Support to Oral Health Research (APESB) 15190501 English Pesqui. Bras. Odontopediatria Clin. Integr. Article Final All Open Access, Gold, Green Scopus 2-s2.0-85048468713.
22. Ezhilarasan D, Lakshmi T, Subha M, Deepak Nallasamy V, Raghunandhakumar S. The ambiguous role of sirtuins in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Dis 2022;28:559–67.
23. Website n.d. Patil S.R., Maragathavalli G., Ramesh D.N.S.V., Vargheese S., Al-Zoubi I.A., Alam M.K. 55550332800;25960216500;55598053400;56397746900;56631777500;7401492628; Assessment of maximum bite force in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A preliminary study 2019 Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clinica Integrada 20 e4871 12 10.1590/pboci.2020.009 https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85074728369&doi=10.1590%2fpboci.2020.009&partnerID=40&md5=697ca271cdd4f47a4cf3d31fdb61723c Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, India; Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, A. M. E’S Dental College and Hospital, Raichur, India; Department of Periodontology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, India; Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Saudi Arabia; Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Saudi Arabia Patil, S.R., Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, India; Maragathavalli, G., Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, India; Ramesh, D.N.S.V., Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, A. M. E’S Dental College and Hospital, Raichur, India; Vargheese, S., Department of Periodontology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, India; Al-Zoubi, I.A., Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Saudi Arabia; Alam, M.K., Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Saudi Arabia Patil, S.R.; Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, India; email: drpsantosh@gmail.com Association of Support to Oral Health Research (APESB) 15190501 English Pesqui. Bras. Odontopediatria Clin. Integr. Article Final All Open Access, Gold Scopus 2-s2.0-85074728369.
24. Website n.d. Rohini S., Sherlin H.J., Jayaraj G. 57193998584;15923845800;55959108200; Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among elderly population in Chennai: A survey 2020 Journal of Oral Medicine and Oral Surgery 26 1 10 10 10.1051/mbcb/2020003 https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85090795881&doi=10.1051%2fmbcb%2f2020003&partnerID=40&md5=8395b25e72db56320828e0ff8900bcba Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India Rohini, S., Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India; Sherlin, H.J., Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India; Jayaraj, G., Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India Sherlin, H.J.; Saveetha Dental College, India; email: drherald888@rediffmail.com EDP Sciences 26081326 English J. Oral Med. Oral Surg. Review Final All Open Access, Gold Scopus 2-s2.0-85090795881.
25. Website n.d. Sekar D. 26030731700; Implications of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) 2022 Oral Oncology 127
105812 7 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2022.105812 https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85126012832&doi=10.1016%2fj.oraloncology.2022.105812&partnerID=40&md5=f2cbf9cc6618fe841bb1f74a6434bec8 Centre for Cellular and Molecular Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical & Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, Chennai, 600077, India Sekar, D., Centre for Cellular and Molecular Research, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical & Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, Chennai, 600077, India Elsevier Ltd 13688375 EJCCE 35279543 English Oral Oncol. Letter Final Scopus 2-s2.0-85126012832.
26. K AP, Selvakumar SC, Selvaraj J, Mony U, Veeraraghavan VP, Sekar D, et al. Reviewing the potential application of miR-21 inhibitors in oral cancer therapeutics. Oral Oncol 2022;125:105713.
27. Pandiar D, Ramani P, Krishnan RP, Monica K. Multifaceted multinucleated giant cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol 2021;121:105400.
28. Panta P. Oral Cancer Detection: Novel Strategies and Clinical Impact. Springer; 2019.
29. Pleasance C. The importance of good oral hygiene to maintain implants. Dental Nursing 2014;10:568–72. https://doi.org/10.12968/denn.2014.10.10.568.
30. Brennan PA, Aldridge T, Dwivedi RC. Premalignant Conditions of the Oral Cavity. Springer; 2019.
31. Einhorn J, Wersäll J. Incidence of oral carcinoma in patients with leukoplakia of the oral mucosa. Cancer 1967;20:2189–93.https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(196712)20:12<2189::aid-cncr2820201218>3.0.co;2-m.
32. Bekta-Kayhan K. Role of Inflammation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Squamous Cell Carcinoma 2012. https://doi.org/10.5772/26170.
33. Cardesa A, Slootweg PJ, Gale N, Franchi A. Pathology of the Head and Neck. Springer; 2017.
34. Ghom AG, Ghom SA (lodam). Textbook of Oral Medicine. JP Medical Ltd; 2014.
35. Nomura J, Tagawa T. Acanthosis nigricans with oral lesions and a malignant visceral tumor: A case report. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 1992;50:169–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-2391(92)90364-6.
36. Raj AT, Thirumal Raj A. Oral lichenoid dysplasia and exophytic oral verrucous hyperplasia: Mythical entities of oral pathology. Oral Oncology 2017;70:75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2017.05.013.
37. Boon ME, Ooms ECM. Carcinoma in Situ of Transitional Cell Epithelium: Clinical and Pathological Considerations. Progress in Surgical Pathology 1988:153–68. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-12820-6_10.
38. Cabay RJ, Morton TH, Epstein JB. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and its progression to oral carcinoma: a review of the literature. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 2007;36:255–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0714.2007.00506.x.
39. Website n.d. Abdolahinia A, Hessami Z, Emami H, Masjedi MR. Associated factors for dual user of hookah and cigarette. 63 Tobacco, Smoking Control and Health Education 2016. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.congress-2016.pa1179.
40. Website n.d. Grandi C, Sanjust F. 124 Occupational exposure to radon: an underestimated risk in view of the combined exposure to other occupational and environmental lung carcinogens. Radiation 2018. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2018-icohabstracts.1218.
41. Website n.d. Gail M. Measuring the benefit of reduced exposure to environmental carcinogens. Journal of Chronic Diseases 1975;28:135–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9681(75)90002-8.
42. Website n.d. Pérez RF, Tejedor JR, Bayón GF, Fernández AF, Fraga MF. Distinct chromatin signatures of DNA hypomethylation in aging and cancer. Aging Cell 2018;17:e12744. https://doi.org/10.1111/acel.12744.
43. Website n.d. Spasovski V. Molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms: deregulation of genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis n.d. https://doi.org/10.2298/bg20121227spasovski.
44. Website n.d. Kareva I. Blood Vessel Formation and Pathological Angiogenesis as Mitigated by Competing Angiogenesis Regulators. Understanding Cancer from a Systems Biology Point of View 2018:45–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-813673-7.00004-5.
45. Website n.d. Rabbitts P. Genetic Basis for Carcinogenesis. Tumor Suppressor Genes and Oncogenes. British Journal of Cancer 1992;65:626–626. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1992.129.
46. Ahmad P, Nawaz R, Qurban M, Shaikh GM, Mohamed RN, Nagarajappa AK, et al. Risk factors associated with the mortality rate of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A 10-year retrospective study. Medicine 2021;100:e27127.
47. Al Moustafa A-E. Development of Oral Cancer: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. Springer; 2017.
48. Jaber MA. Oral epithelial dysplasia in non-users of tobacco and alcohol: an analysis of clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment outcome. Journal of Oral Science 2010;52:13–21. https://doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.52.13.
49. Jalouli J, Jalouli MM, Sapkota D, Ibrahim SO, Larsson P-A, Sand L. Human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus and epstein barr virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma from eight different countries. Anticancer Res 2012;32:571–80.
50. Website n.d. Prasad JB, Dhar M. Tobacco use in India and its states: Burden of smoking and smokeless forms of tobacco (2015-25) and its predictors. Journal of Cancer Policy 2017;14:21–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpo.2017.09.006.
51. Lorini L, Bescós Atín C, Thavaraj S, Müller-Richter U, Alberola Ferranti M, Pamias Romero J, et al. Overview of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: From Risk Factors to Specific Therapies. Cancers 2021;13. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13153696.
52. Website n.d. prevalence, Forms And Types Of Tobacco Smoking – A Literature Review. International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Allied Sciences 2020;9. https://doi.org/10.31032/ijbpas/2020/9.10.5224.
53. Website n.d. Table 1: Clinicopathological characteristics of 53 OSCC subjects n.d. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6732/table-1.
54. Website n.d. Kashyap A, Anand KP, Kashyap S. Paan chewing as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. The Lancet 2008;372:1218. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(08)61511-1.
55. Curra M, de Farias Gabriel A, Siebert M, da Silveira Matte Ú, Brunetto A, Gregianin LJ, et al. GENETIC Polymorphisms Of Genes Encoding Drug Metabolism Are Related To Oral Mucositis In Pediatric Patients With Cancer. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology 2020;130:e280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2020.04.771.
56. Website n.d. Percival DR, Martin DB. Sequential determination of radium-226, radium-228, actinium-227, and thorium isotopes in environmental and process waste samples. Analytical Chemistry 1974;46:1742–9. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60348a048. 57. Website n.d. Jaber MA. Oral epithelial dysplasia in non-users of tobacco and alcohol: an analysis of clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment outcome. Journal of Oral Science 2010;52:13–21. https://doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.52.13.
58. Klein, George. Viral Oncology. 1980.
59. Shah MD FACS J, Johnson CMG FMedSci MDSc N. Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer. CRC Press; 2018.
60. Kareva I. Blood Vessel Formation and Pathological Angiogenesis as Mitigated by Competing Angiogenesis Regulators. Understanding Cancer from a Systems Biology Point of View 2018:45–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-813673-7.00004-5.
61. Website n.d. Zhou C-X, Gao Y. Frequent genetic alterations and reduced expression of the Axin1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma: Involvement in tumor progression and metastasis. Oncology Reports 2007. https://doi.org/10.3892/or.17.1.73.
62. Website n.d. Kulak-Ozkan Y, Kazazoglu E, Arikan A. Oral hygiene habits, denture cleanliness, presence of yeasts and stomatitis in elderly people. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2002;29:300–4. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2842.2002.00816.x.
63. Nambiyar K, Ahuja A, Bhardwaj M. A study of epithelial-mesenchymal transition immunohistochemical markers in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2021:4640.
64. Lin S-C, Liu C-J, Ji S-H, Hung W-W, Liu Y-C, Chang S-R, et al. The upregulation of oncogenic miRNAs in swabbed samples obtained from oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Clin Oral Investig 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-021-04108-y.
65. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. Smokeless Tobacco and Some Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. World Health Organization; 2007.
66. Website n.d. Bekta-Kayhan K. Role of Inflammation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Squamous Cell Carcinoma 2012. https://doi.org/10.5772/26170.
67. Bisen PS, Khan Z, Bundela S. Biology of Oral Cancer: Key Apoptotic Regulators. CRC Press; 2013.
68. Warnakulasuriya S, Greenspan JS. Textbook of Oral Cancer: Prevention, Diagnosis and Management. Springer Nature; 2020.
69. Manjunatha BS, Patil N. Basement Markers in Normal Oral Mucosa & Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. 2017.
70. Olshan AF. Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Prevention of Head and Neck Cancer. Springer Science & Business Media; 2010.
71. Koch W. Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer Series: Head and Neck Cancers E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2015.
72. Bagheri SC, Bell B, Khan HA. Current Therapy In Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2011.
73. Oluwadara OO. Molecular Biomarker Profiling and Translational Evidence-based Dentistry in Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. 2010.
74. Piotrowski I, Zhu X, Saccon TD, Ashiqueali S, Schneider A, de Carvalho Nunes AD, et al. miRNAs as Biomarkers for Diagnosing and Predicting Survival of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients. Cancers 2021;13. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13163980.
75. Sathyan KM, Sailasree R, Jayasurya R, Lakshminarayanan K, Abraham T, Nalinakumari KR, et al. Carcinoma of tongue and the buccal mucosa represent different biological subentities of the oral carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2006;132:601–9.
76. Bolesina N, Femopase FL, Olmos MA, Morelatto RA, de Blanc SAL. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Clinical Aspects. 2012.
77. Patel V, Iglesias-Bartolome R, Siegele B, Marsh CA, Leelahavanichkul K, Molinolo AA, et al. Cellular systems for studying human oral squamous cell carcinomas. Adv Exp Med Biol 2011;720:27–38.
78. Kelner N, Rodrigues PC, Bufalino A, Fonseca FP, Santos-Silva AR dos, Miguel MCC, et al. Activin A immunoexpression as predictor of occult lymph node metastasis and overall survival in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck 2015;37:479–86.
79. Albert S, Hourseau M, Halimi C, Serova M, Descatoire V, Barry B, et al. Prognostic value of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue. Oral Oncol 2012;48:1263–71.
80. Imai FL, Uzawa K, Nimura Y, Moriya T, Imai MA, Shiiba M, et al. Chromosome 1 open reading frame 10 (C1orf10) gene is frequently down-regulated and inhibits cell proliferation in oral squamous cell carcinoma. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 2005;37:1641–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2005.02.005.
81. Méndez E, Houck JR, Doody DR, Fan W, Lohavanichbutr P, Rue TC, et al. A Genetic Expression Profile Associated with Oral Cancer Identifies a Group of Patients at High Risk of Poor Survival. Clinical Cancer Research 2009;15:1353–61. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-08-1816.
82. Chen C, Méndez E, Houck J, Fan W, Lohavanichbutr P, Doody D, et al. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Genes Predictive of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 2008;17:2152–62. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.epi-07-2893.
83. Luksic I, Suton P. Predictive markers for delayed lymph node metastases and survival in early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma. Head & Neck 2017;39:694–701. https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.24667.
84. dhingra V. Evaluation Of Cyclin D1 Expression In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Journal Of Clinical And Diagnostic Research 2017. https://doi.org/10.7860/jcdr/2017/21760.9329.
85. Lingen MW. The changing face of head and neck cancer. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008;106:315–6.
86. Lohavanichbutr P, Houck J, Doody DR, Wang P, Mendez E, Futran N, et al. Gene Expression in Uninvolved Oral Mucosa of OSCC Patients Facilitates Identification of Markers Predictive of OSCC Outcomes. PLoS ONE 2012;7:e46575. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046575.
87. Coussens LM, Werb Z. Inflammation and cancer. Nature 2002;420:860–7.
88. Grivennikov SI, Greten FR, Karin M. Immunity, inflammation, and cancer. Cell 2010;140:883–99.
89. Templeton AJ, Ace O, McNamara MG, Al-Mubarak M, Vera-Badillo FE, Hermanns T, et al. Prognostic role of platelet to lymphocyte ratio in solid tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2014;23:1204–12.
90. Morgan DW, Forssman UJ, Nakada MT. Cancer and Inflammation. Springer; 2012.
91. Guthrie GJK, Charles KA, Roxburgh CSD, Horgan PG, McMillan DC, Clarke SJ. The systemic inflammation-based neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio: experience in patients with cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2013;88:218–30.
92. Liang W, Ferrara N. The Complex Role of Neutrophils in Tumor Angiogenesis and Metastasis. Cancer Immunol Res 2016;4:83–91.
93. Hasegawa T, Iga T, Takeda D, Amano R, Saito I, Kakei Y, et al. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio associated with poor prognosis in oral cancer: a retrospective study. BMC Cancer 2020;20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07063-1.
94. Kao H-K, Löfstrand J, Loh CY-Y, Lao WW-K, Yi J-S, Chang Y-L, et al. Nomogram based on albumin and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for predicting the prognosis of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Sci Rep 2018;8:13081.
95. Proctor MJ, McMillan DC, Morrison DS, Fletcher CD, Horgan PG, Clarke SJ. A derived neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicts survival in patients with cancer. British Journal of Cancer 2012;107:695–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2012.292.
96. Sajadieh A, Mouridsen MR, Selmer C, Intzilakis T, Nielsen OW, Haugaard SB. Monocyte number associated with incident cancer and mortality in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling Danes. Eur J Cancer 2011;47:2015–22.
97. Bobdey S, Ganesh B, Mishra P, Jain A. Role of Monocyte Count and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Survival of Oral Cancer Patients. International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology 2017;21:21.
98. Pollard JW. Tumour-educated macrophages promote tumour progression and metastasis. Nature Reviews Cancer 2004;4:71–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc1256.
99. Pollard J. Tumor-educated macrophages as promoters of tumor progression. European Journal of Cancer Supplements 2008;6:66. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1359-6349(08)71429-0.
100. Vakkila J, Lotze MT. Inflammation and necrosis promote tumour growth. Nature Reviews Immunology 2004;4:641–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri1415.
101. Gonzalez-Perez RR, Rueda BR. Tumor Angiogenesis Regulators. CRC Press; 2013.
102. Fang H-Y, Huang XY, Chien H-T, Chang JT-C, Liao C-T, Huang J-J, et al. Refining the role of preoperative C-reactive protein by neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. The Laryngoscope 2013;123:2690–9. https://doi.org/10.1002/lary.24105.
103. Platelets and Angiogenesis in Malignancy. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 2004;30:95–108. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-822974.
104. Wang B, Liu J, Zhong Z. Prediction of lymph node metastasis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma using the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-neutrophil ratio. J Clin Lab Anal 2021;35:e23684.
105. Rassouli A, Saliba J, Castano R, Hier M, Zeitouni AG. Systemic inflammatory markers as independent prognosticators of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck 2015;37:103–10.
106. Zhou C-X, Gao Y. Frequent genetic alterations and reduced expression of the Axin1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma: Involvement in tumor progression and metastasis. Oncology Reports 2007. https://doi.org/10.3892/or.17.1.73.
107. Miller DG. The Early Diagnosis of Cancer. Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention n.d.:5–64. https://doi.org/10.1159/000395007.
108. Website n.d. Bolesina, N., Morelatto, R., Belardinelli, P., Fernández, E., Herrera, G., López de Blanc, S. (2007) http://iadr.confex.com/iadr/arg07/preliminaryprogram/abstract_114584.htm, ISSN: 0022-0345 (accessed June 28, 2021).
109. Sargeran K, Murtomaa H, Safavi SMR, Vehkalahti MM, Teronen O. Survival after diagnosis of cancer of the oral cavity. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008;46:187–91.
110. Xiao Z, Zan L, Lichang Y. Defect Repair After Tongue Cancer Surgery. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 2018:165–85. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-3400-8_6.
111. Eggly S, Penner LA, Hagiwara N, Gonzalez R, Harper FWK, Heath EI, et al. Patient, companion,
and oncologist agreement regarding information discussed during triadic oncology clinical interactions. Psycho-Oncology 2013;22:637–45. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.3045.
112. Daniell JR, Dolja-Gore X, McDowell L, Udovicich C, Rowe D, Iseli TA, et al. The impact of travel distance to treatment centre on oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma survival and recurrence. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom.2021.08.026.
113. Sklenicka SR. Survival Analysis and Risk Factors for Recurrence in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Does Surgical Salvage Affect Outcome? Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2009;67:39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2009.05.385.
114. Devaraja K. Surgical sequence of neck dissection and primary tumor excision could impact the locoregional recurrence rates in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncology 2020;110:104809. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2020.104809.
115. Website n.d. Stevens MH, Gardner JW, Parkin JL, Johnson LP. Head and Neck Cancer Survival and Life-style Change. Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 1983;109:746–9. https://doi.org/10.1001/archotol.1983.00800250040009.