Main Article Content

Muhammad Kamran Afzal
Dr. Noman Habib
Shamsa Rana


Biochemical, Drought stress, Pea varieties, Water relations


The main purpose of this pot experiment at the Botanical Gardens of GCUF is to determine out which treatments with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) may mitigate the effects of drought on different types of peas over a duration of 60 days. There were four treatment groups in the randomized full block design: T1 (control), T2 (NO treatment 0.1 mM), T3 (H2O2 treatment 1 mM), and T4 (Combined NO 0.1 mM and H2O2 1 mM Treatment). The findings show that, for all pea types (Meteor, Sarsabaz, Climax, and Supreme), the combination treatment (T4) consistently had the greatest favorable impact on water related parameters. Relative Water Content (RWC) increased by 2.5% on average, Leaf Osmotic Potential (LOP) improved by 0.9 MPa, Leaf Turgor Potential (LTP) increased by 0.3 MPa, and Leaf Water Potential (LWP) improved by 0.4 MPa on average upon treatment with T4. Furthermore, T4 had a favorable effect on the levels of carotenoid and chlorophyll, with an average increase of 0.8 μg/g fresh weight and 7.3% for chlorophyll, respectively. Gas exchange parameters, with an average increase of 2.1 μmol/m²/s, 1.2 mmol/m³/s, and 0.03 mmol/m²/s, respectively, were greatly improved by T4. These parameters included photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance. These results highlight that NO and H2O2 treatments can improve water relations, biochemical parameters, and gas exchange while reducing drought stress in pea types. To clarify the underlying mechanics and useful uses for agriculture, more research is necessary. This research contributes to our knowledge of plant physiology and environmental responses, which is helpful for improving practices in agriculture.

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