Main Article Content

Sana Arshad
Syed Mohsin Bukhari
Arshad Javid
Shahid Mehmood
Ali Ahmed Sheikh


Antibiotic resistance, bacterial pathogens, molecular characterization, potable water


Bacterial pathogens are the primary cause of waterborne diseases among people and antimicrobial resistance of these pathogens has become a challenge and serious cause of mortalities in many countries. The current study aimed to characterize bacterial pathogens (E. coli, Shigella and Klebsiella) at molecular level from drinking water and their antimicrobial resistance against different antibiotics. 215 water samples were collected from different locations of Kasur, Faisalabad and Gujrat with the help of GPS essentials. All the samples were plated, cultured and specific bacterial isolates were obtained. For molecular characterization, the genomic DNA of bacterial isolates were amplified using 16S rRNA universal primers. Antibacterial resistance was assessed by using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the streptomycin and azithromycin (80-95%), amoxicillin (50-100%), ampicillin, penicillin, neomycin and gentamycin (70-30%) showed higher resistance against E. coli, Shigella and Klebsiella species. Other antibiotics like cefotaxime, cephalothin, clarithromycin and gatifloxacin (5-20%) resistance against bacterial species. Finding of this study revealed that higher resistance of bacteria against antibiotics limits the effects of antibiotics and there is pressing need of advancement in treatment and eradication of these bacterial species from drinking water.

Abstract 74 | Pdf Downloads 23


1. Banin E, Hughes D, Kuipers OP. Bacterial pathogens, antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2017;41(3):450-2.
2. Saima AS, Ferhat Abbas R, Rizwan M, et al. Isolation and identification of Shigella species from food and water samples of Quetta, Pakistan. Pure Appl Biol 2018;7(1):227-35.
3. Ud-Din A, Wahid S. Relationship among Shigella species and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and their differentiation. Braz J Microbiol 2014;45:1131-8.
4. Livio S, Strockbine NA, Panchalingam S, et al. Shigella isolates from the global enteric multicenter study inform Vaccine development. Clin Infect Dis 2014;933-41.
5. Patil DP, Lava R. Identification, characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of Shigella species isolated from stool samples in children. Int J Biological Med Res 2012;3(2):1640-3.
6. Kittana H, Gomes-Neto JC, Heck K, et al. Commensal Escherichia coli strains can promote intestinal inflammation via differential interleukin-6 production. Front Immunol 2018;9:1-13.
7. Ramirez Castillo FY, Avelar González FJ, Garneau P, et al. Presence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli in the San Pedro River located in the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico. Front Microbiol 2013;4:147-63.
8. Cabral JP. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2010;7(10):3657-3703.
9. Boelee E, Geerling G, van der Zaan B, et al. Water and health: From environmental pressures to integrated responses. Acta Trop 2019;193:217-26.
10. Price RG, Wildeboer D. E. coli as an indicator of contamination and health risk in environmental waters. Escherichia coli-Recent Advances on Physiology, Pathogenesis and Biotechnological Applications, 2017.
11. Magiorakos AP, Srinivasan A, Carey RB, et al. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012;18(3):268-81.
12. Shrivastava AK, Kumar S, Mohakud NK, et al. Multiple etiologies of infectious diarrhea and concurrent infections in a pediatric outpatient-based screening study in Odisha, India. Gut Pathog 2017;9(1):1-12.
13. Cabrera-Sosa L, Ochoa TJ. Escherichia coli diarrhea. In: Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Elsevier, 2020;481-5.
14. Kichana E, Addy F, Dufailu OA. 2022. Genetic characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from household water sources in northern Ghana. J Water Health 2022;20(5):770-80.
15. Tian L, Sun Z, Zhang Z. Antimicrobial resistance of pathogens causing nosocomial bloodstream infection in Hubei Province, China, from 2014 to 2016: a multicenter retrospective study. BMC Public Health 2018;18:1-8.
16. Bengoechea JA, Sa Pessoa J. Klebsiella pneumoniae infection biology: living to counteract host defenses. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2019;43(2):123-44.
17. Hamza E, Dorgham SM, Hamza DA. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in broiler poultry farming in Egypt. J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2016;7:8-10.
18. Guo Y, Zhou H, Qin, L, et al. Frequency, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae in food samples. PLoS One 2016;11(4):1-13.
19. Kim HS, Chon JW, Kim YJ, et al. Prevalence and characterization of extended-spectrum-β-lactamaseproducing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in ready-to-eat. Int J of Food Microbiol 2015;207:83-6.
20. Abada E, Al-Fifi Z, Al-Rajab AJ, et al. Molecular identification of biological contaminants in different drinking water resources of the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. J Water Health 2019;17(4):622-32.
21. Magray MS, Kumar A, Rawat AK, Srivastava S. Identification of Escherichia coli through analysis of 16S rRNA and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences. Bioinformation 2011;6(10):370-1.
22. Idris A. Comparative analysis of 16SrRNA genes of Klebsiella isolated from groundnut and some American type culture collections. Banats J Biotechnol 2016;7(13):34-40.
23. Nochi Z, Sahebekhtiari N, Kharaziha P, et al. Comparison of 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and gyrB genes sequences in phylogenetic relationships of Shigella isolates from Iran. Ann Microbial 2009;59:615-22.
24. Coates A, Ng AY. The importance of encoding versus training with sparse coding and vector quantization. In: Proceedings of the 28th international conference on machine learning (ICML-11). Stanford University, Stanford, 2011:921-8.
25. Erdem Büyükkiraz M, Kesmen Z. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs): A promising class of antimicrobial compounds. J Appl Microbiol 2022;132(3):1573-96.
26. Swedan S, Abu Alrub H. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and pathotypes of Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water sources in Jordan. Pathogens 2019;8(2):86-108.
27. Patoli AA, Patoli BB, Mehraj V. High prevalence of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli in drinking water samples from Hyderabad. Gomal J Med Sci 2010;8(1):23-6
28. Nave HH, Mansouri S, Sadeghi A, Moradi M. Molecular diagnosis and anti-microbial resistance patterns among Shigella spp. isolated from patients with diarrhea. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2016;9(3):205-10.
29. Kumar S, Tripathi VR, Garg SK. Antibiotic resistance and genetic diversity in water-borne Enterobacteriaceae isolates from recreational and drinking water sources. Int J Environ Sci Technol 2013;10:789-98.
30. Ballén V, Gabasa Y, Ratia C, et al. Antibiotic resistance and virulence profiles of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from different clinical sources. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021;11:1-11.

Most read articles by the same author(s)