Pomegranate's Ethnobotanical Significance especially in Maternal Health Care in Kotmomin, District Sargodha as well as its Antimicrobial and Enzyme Inhibition Activities

Main Article Content

Shamim Akhtar, Summiya Kanwal, Nimrah Malik, Ifrah Asma, Farwa Anser, Faisal Imran, Najma Shaheen, Sidra Islam, Sana Ali

Keywords

.

Abstract

Plants are considered a divine blessing, with 80,000 species deemed essential for medicinal use due to their crucial role in human welfare and environmental balance. Ethnobotanical research underscores the economic, biological, and cultural ties between people and plants, aiding in biodiversity conservation and rational resource utilization. Medicinal plants, constituting 18.9% of total flora, have been pivotal in traditional medicine, addressing ailments and combating infectious diseases, alongside synthetic drugs. Pomegranate, an ancient fruit with therapeutic potential dating back millennia, exemplifies traditional remedies, utilized for various ailments such as dysentery, diarrhea, and microbial infections through decoctions and folk medicine practices.


The survey revealed that Punica granatum (pomegranate) is commonly used for medicinal purposes by local people. Traditional uses include treating influenza, digestive disorders, cancer, diabetes, and various other ailments. Different parts of the plant, including the fruit, leaves, and seeds, are utilized for medicinal purposes. Traditional uses of pomegranate during and after pregnancy include consuming teas, decoctions, juices, and pastes for various health benefits.


Extracts from different parts of Punica granatum were tested for their antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal strains. The leaf, stem, peel, and seed extracts exhibited varying degrees of antibacterial and antifungal activities against different strains. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, with ethanol, methanol, and water as solvents. Results showed promising antibacterial and antifungal properties of Punica granatum extracts, suggesting their potential as natural antimicrobial agents.


The study also evaluated the enzyme inhibition activity of Punica granatum extracts against urease. Extracts from the root, leaves, stem, and seeds were tested for their ability to inhibit urease activity. The root and stem extracts showed significant antiurease activity, with varying inhibitory concentrations. Ethanol extracts generally exhibited stronger antiurease activity compared to methanol and water extracts.


These findings demonstrate the diverse medicinal properties of Punica granatum, supporting its traditional use in healthcare systems and highlighting its potential for further pharmaceutical research and development.

Abstract 77 | PDF Downloads 33

References

Alshaker HA, Qinna NA, Qadan F, Bustami M, Matalka KZ. (2011). Eriobotrya japonica hydrophilic extract modulates cytokines in normal tissues, in the tumor of Meth-A-fibrosarcoma bearing mice, and enhances their survival time. BMC Complement Altern Med. 11:9.
Alshaker HA, Qinna NA, Qadan F, Bustami M, Matalka KZ. 2011. Eriobotrya japonica hydrophilic extract modulates cytokines in normal tissues, in the tumor of Meth-A-fibrosarcoma bearing mice, and enhances their survival time. BMC Complement Altern Med. 11:9
Aviram M, Dornfeld L, Rosenblat M, Volkova N, Kaplan M, Coleman R, Hayek T, Presser D, Fuhrman B. 2000. Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic modifications to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies in humans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Am J Clinl Nutr 71:1062–76.
Banno, N.; Akihisa, T.; Tokuda, H.; Yasukawa, K.; Taguchi, Y.; Akazawa, H.; Ukiya, M.; Kimura, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Nishino, H. Anti-inflammatory and antitumor-promoting effects of the triterpene acids from the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005, 28, 1995–1999.
Booth C (1971) The Genus Fusarium. Commonwealth Mycological Institute. CAB International. Kew, Surrey, England.
Boukef, K., Souissi, H.R. and Balansard, G. (1982). Contribution to the study of plants used in traditional medicine in Tunisia. plant Med.Phytother., 16: 260-279.
Bourdy, G., M. L. Willcox, H. Ginsburg, P. Rasoanaivo, B. Graz and E. Deharo. 2008. Ethnopharmacology and malaria: New hypothetical leads or old efficient antimalarials? Int. J. Parasitol., 38(1): 33-41.
Caceres, A., Giron, L.M., Alvarado, S.R. and Torres, M.F. (1987). Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J.Ethnopharmacol., 20: 223-237
Choi YG, Seok YH, Yeo S, Jeong MY, Lim S. 2011. Protective changes of inflammation-related gene expression by the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica in the LPS-stimulated human gingival fibroblast: microarray analysis. J Ethnopharmacol. 135:636–645
Clin.Geriatric Med, 17: 337-58.
constituents of topically applied crude drugs. I. Constituents and anti-inflammatory effect of
Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 1999;12(4):564-582.Sharma R, Sharma C, Kapoor B. Antibacterial resistance: current problems and possible solutions. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2005;59(3):120-1299.
Debjit Bhowmil1*,Harish Gopinath1,B,Pragati Kumar1,S.Duraivel1, Aravind. G1, K.P. Sampath Kumar2 (2013). Medicinal Uses of Punica granatum and Its Health Benefits. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry.1(5): 28.
Devesa SS, Blot WJ and Fraumeni JF. Changing patterns in the incidence of esophageal and gastric carcinoma in the United State. J. Cancer (1998) 83: 2049-2053.
ed., Vol. 2, Academic Press,
Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 34: 2614–2617.
Fadavi A, Barzegar M, Azizi HM. 2006. Determination of fatty acids and total lipid content in oilseed of 25 pomegranates varieties grown in Iran. J Food Comp Anal 19:676–80.
Golbabaei S, Bazl R, Golestanian S, Nabati F, Bahrampour Omrany Z, Yousefi B, Hajiaghaee R, Rezazadeh S and Amanlou M. Urease inhibitory activities of β-boswellic acid derivatives. Daru (2013) 21: 2.
Howson CP, Hiyama T and Wynder EL. The decline of gastric cancer: epidemiology of unplanned triumph. J. Epidemiol. Rev. (1986) 8: 1-27.
Hussain, F., S.M. Shah and H. Sher. 2007. Traditional resource evaluation of some plants of Mastuj, District Chitral, Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot., 39(2): 339-354.Nisar, M.F., S. Ismail, M. Arshad, A. Majeed and M. Arfan. 2011. Ethnomedicinal Flora of District Mandi Bahaudin, Pakistan. Middle East J. Sci. Res., 9: 233-238.
Ito H, Kobayashi E, Li S. H, Hatano T, Sugita D, Kubo N, Shimura S, Itoh Y, Tokuda H, Nishino H & Yoshida T. Antitumor activity of compounds isolated from leaves of Eriobotrya japonica. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2002;50:2400-2403.
Ito H, Kobayashi E, Takamatsu Y, Li SH, Hatano T, et al. (2000) Polyphenols from Eriobotrya japonica and their cytotoxicity against human oral tumor cell lines. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 48: 687–693.
Ito, H.; Kobayashi, E.; Li, S.H.; Hatano, T.; Sugita, D.; Kubo, N.; Shimura, S.; Itoh, Y.; Tokuda, H.; Nishino, H.; et al. Antitumor activity of compounds isolated from leaves of Eriobotrya japonica. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, 50, 2400–2403.
Joy,P.P., Thomas, J., Mathew, S., & Skaria, B.P. (1998). Medicinal plants. Tropical horticulture,2,449-632.
Khalil, A.T., I. Khan, K. Ahmad, Y.A. Khan, J. Khan and Z.K. Shinwari. 2014. Antibacterial activity of honey in northwest Pakistan against select human pathogens. J. Tradit. Chin. Med., 34: 86-89.
Kolattukudy PE, Gamble DL (1995) Nectria haematococca: pathogenesis and host specificity in plant diseases. In: Kohmoto, K., Singh, U.S., Singh, R.P.(eds). Pathogenesis and Host Specificity in Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Nematodes, Vol. 2 Eukaryotes. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 83-102
Larrosa M, Gonz´alez-Sarr´ıas A, Y´ a˜ nez-Gasc´on MJ, Selma MV, Azor´ın-Ortu˜no M, Toti S, Tom´as-Barber´an F, Dolara P, Espina JC. 2010. Anti-inflammatory properties of a pomegranate extract and its metabolite urolithin-A in a colitis rat model and the effect of colon inflammation on phenolic metabolism. J Nut Biochem 21(8):717–25.
Lee CJ, Chen LG, Liang WL, Wanga CC. 2010. Anti-inflammatory effects of Punica granatum Linne in vitro and in vivo. Food Chem 118:315–22.
Lin JY, Tang CY (2008) Strawberry, loquat, mulberry, and bitter melon juices exhibit prophylactic effects on LPS-induced inflammation using murine peritoneal macrophages. Food Chem 107: 1587–1596.
Longtin R. 2003. The pomegranate: nature’s power fruit? J Natl Cancer Inst 95:346–8.
Marwat, S.k., Fazal-ur-rehman, M.A.K., Ahmed, M., Zafar,M., and Ghulam, S. (2011). Medicinal folk recipes used as traditional phytotherapies in district Dera Ismail Khan,KPK,Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43(3), 1453-1462.
Meerts IATM, Verspeek-Rip CM, Buskens CAF, Keizer HG, Bassaganya-Riera J, Jouni ZE, van Huygevoort AHBM, van Otterdijk FM, van de Waart EJ. 2009. Toxicological evaluation of pomegranate seed oil. Food Chem Toxicol 47(6):1085–92.
Micheal, A., C. Thompson and M. Abramovitz. 1956. Artemia salina as a test organism for bioassay. Science, 123: 464.
Michetti K. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. (1998) 14: 57-63
Morita H, Miyata K, Mamitsuka K, Fukuda T, Noguchi K, Kiyofuji J, et al. Antibiotic effects of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract. Journal of Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents. 2007;35(2):65-71
Muhammad Qaiser Khan and Zabta Khan Sjinwari (2016). The ethnomedicinal profile of family
Nagaraju, N. and Rao, K.N. (1990). A survey of plant crude drugs of Rayalaseema, Andhra Pradesh, India. .J. Ethnopharmacol., 29: 137-158

O'Donnell K (2000) Molecular phylogeny of the Nectria haematococca-Fusarium solani species complex. Mycologia 92:919-938.
Rosaceae; A study on Pakistan Plants. Journal of Botany,Pakistan.48(2): 613-620.
Santhosh, N.R., Yogesh Kumar, R. G., and Krishnaswamy, K. (2014). Ethno medicinal plants used by traditional herbal practitioners of Kadur Taluk of Chikmagalore district of Karnataka, India. Journal of Medicinal plants, 2(4), 69-72.

Shimizu M, Fukumura H, Tsuji H, Tanaami S, Hayashi T, et al. (1986) Antiinflammatory
Tanaka K, Nishizono S, Makino N, Tamaru S, Terai O, Ikeda I. 2008. Hypoglycemic activity of Eriobotrya japonica seeds in type 2 diabeticratsandmice.BiosciBiotechnolBiochem.72:686–693.
Yang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Huang, C.; Lv, X.W.; Liu, L.; Wang, Y.Y.; Li, J. Antifibrosis effects of triterpene acids of Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. leaf in a rat model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2012, 64, 1751–1760.

Zhou C, Sun C, Chen K, Li X. 2011. Flavonoids, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity in the flower of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. Int J Mol Sci. 12:2935–2945.