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Asma Irshad
Aisha Tahir
Ansar Zubair
Mehreen Fatima
Muhammad Aurangzaib


Antimicrobial compounds, antioxidant activity, organic extracts, phytomedicinal plants


Background and Aim: Trachyspermum ammi and Citrus limon as strong phytomedicinal plants are frequently utilized in the treatment of a range of illnesses. The present research is designed to analyze the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Trachyspermum ammi (ajwain) and Citrus limon (lemon) of distilled water, acetone, ethanol, and methanol against Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus by utilizing the Well diffusion technique.

Methods: The microdilution process was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (mg/mL ± SD) of both the selected plant extracts. The antioxidant activity of Trachyspermum ammi and Citrus limon was examined via total phenolic contents (mg/g), total flavonoid contents (mg/g), DDPH (%), and reducing power (nm), the results were explicated by applying ANOVA.

Results: The antimicrobial examination discovered that Citrus limon produced the highest zone of inhibition in methanol (7.3±0.05mm ± SD) against Staphylococcus aureus whereas for Salmonella typhi, aqueous (13.6±0.5mm ± SD) produced highest activity among the other organic extracts. Correspondingly, Trachyspermum ammi provided a maximum zone of inhibition in methanol (20.3±0.58mm ± SD) against Staphylococcus aureus and for Salmonella typhi, ethanol (22.3±0.58mm ± SD) presented maximum activity. The highest total phenolic content was found in the acetone extract of lemon (11.0±0.57mg/g ± SD), however, the lowest was in distilled water (0.197±1.25mg/g ± SD) of ajwain. The total flavonoid content was analyzed to be the greatest in acetone of lemon (6.23±0.30mg/g ± SD) however the lowest in acetone of ajwain (0.038±0.80mg/g ± SD). Likewise, lemon and ajwain presented notable DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing potential.

Conclusion: Consequently, Trachyspermum ammi and Citrus limon extracts have medicinal potential and can be exploited in the pharmaceutical industry.

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