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Hashir khan
Shahzad Hussain
Saqib Rasheed
Sardar Muhammad Abdullah
Yumna Bilal
Muhammad Daoud
Nabeel Hussain


Bacteriophage therapy, urinary tract infections, multidrug-resistant Klebsiella, alternative treatment, antibiotic resistance, in vitro efficacy, systematic review.


This systematic review evaluate the in vitro efficacy of bacteriophage therapy as an alternative treatment for urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by multidrug-resistant Klebsiella species. With the increasing challenge of antibiotic resistance, alternative treatments such as phage therapy have gained attention due to their specificity and potential to reduce adverse effects associated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Our review followed PRISMA guidelines and included studies from January 2021 onwards, sourced from databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Five studies met our inclusion criteria and were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of phage therapy. The results indicate that phages exhibit variable lytic activities against Klebsiella strains, showing promise particularly in settings where traditional antibiotics fail. Factors influencing phage efficacy, such as phage-host specificity and environmental conditions, were also reviewed. The synthesis suggests a significant potential for phage therapy in clinical settings, though further research and standardized protocols are needed to fully harness its benefits against UTIs.

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