Investigation of Epidemiology and Assessment of Antimicrobial Resistance of Clostridioides difficile in Animal-Based Foods

Main Article Content

1Allah Nawaz Khan*,2Arslan Rasheed, 3Qurat-Ul-Ain, 4Qurat-Ul-Ain, 5Abia Mushtaque, 3Mehwish Saeed,6Tehreem Fatima Tariq

Keywords

Clostridioides difficile, epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance, meat

Abstract

In hospitalized patients, the prevalent nosocomial bacterium Clostridioides difficile causes diarrhea and gastrointestinal issues. The majority of C. difficile cases in the community are unconnected to antibiotic prescriptions or hospitalization, hence the dietary component has been highlighted as a vector of infection transmission. To look at the occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile isolated from raw meat and carcass surface swab samples, an existing survey was created. A total of 135 surface swab samples of raw beef and carcass were taken. Using a mix of biochemical methods and culture, C. difficile was isolated. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was devised in order to evaluate antibiotic resistance in isolates. There was evidence of C. difficile contamination in 4.57% of the samples analyzed. The pathogens were found in about 2.45% of raw meat samples and 3.77% of surface swabs from carcasses. There was evidence of resistance to tetracycline (75.67%), erythromycin (67.75%), metronidazole (37.55%), ciprofloxacin (42.65%), and clindamycin (55.43%). Meropenem and chloramphenicol had the lowest levels of resistance to the C. difficile bacteria (15.56% and 14.77%), respectively. C. difficile bacteria were shown to be lethal and antibiotic-resistant in surface swab samples taken from carcasses and raw meat. According to this study, food animals, particularly sheep and cattle, are carriers of C. difficile during the slaughter stage, which causes the carcasses in the slaughterhouse to be contaminated.

Abstract 82 | PDF Downloads 21

References

Abdel-Glil MY, Thomas P, Schmoock G, Abou-El-Azm K, Wieler LH, Neubauer H, Seyboldt C (2018). Presence of Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat in Egypt. Anaerobe, 1;51:21-5.
Alves F, Nunes A, Castro R, Sequeira A, Moreira O, Matias R, Rodrigues JC, Silveira L, Gomes JP, Oleastro M (2022). Assessment of the transmission dynamics of Clostridioides difficile in a farm environment reveals the presence of a new toxigenic strain connected to swine production. Frontiers in Microbiology,1230.
Banawas SS (2018). Clostridium difficile infections: a global overview of drug sensitivity and resistance mechanisms. BioMed research international, 20-18.
Bouttier S, Barc MC, Felix B, Lambert S, Collignon A, Barbut F (2010). Clostridium difficile in ground meat, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4: 733–735,
Brajerova M, Zikova J, Krutova M (2022). Clostridioides difficile epidemiology in the Middle and the Far East. Anaerobe, 1;74:102542.
De Boer E, Zwartkruis-Nahuis A, Heuvelink AE, Harmanus C, Kuijper EJ (2011). Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in retailed meat in the Netherlands. International journal of food microbiology, 5;144(3):561-4.
Feuerstadt P, Nelson WW, Drozd EM, Dreyfus J, Dahdal DN, Wong AC, Mohammadi I, Teigland C, Amin A (2022). Mortality, health care use, and costs of Clostridioides difficile infections in older adults. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 1;23(10):1721-8.
Guh AY, Mu Y, Winston LG, Johnston H, Olson D, Farley MM, Wilson LE, Holzbauer SM, Phipps EC, Dumyati GK, Beldavs ZG (2020). Trends in US burden of Clostridioides difficile infection and outcomes. New England Journal of Medicine, 2;382(14):1320-30.
Herbert R, Hatcher J, Jauneikaite E, Gharbi M, d’Arc S, Obaray N, Rickards T, Rebec M, Blandy O, Hope R, Thomas A (2019). Two-year analysis of Clostridium difficile ribotypes associated with increased severity. Journal of Hospital Infection, 1;103(4):388-94.
Janezic S, Ocepek M, Zidaric V, Rupnik M. Clostridium difficile genotypes other than ribotype 078 that are prevalent among human, animal and environmental isolates. BMC microbiology. 2012 Dec;12(1):1-8.
Kachrimanidou M, Tzika E, Filioussis G (2019). Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile in food-producing animals, horses and household pets: a comprehensive review. Microorganisms, 9;7(12):667.
Knetsch CW, Kumar N, Forster SC, Connor TR, Browne HP, Harmanus C, Sanders IM, Harris SR, Turner L, Morris T, Perry M (2018). Zoonotic transfer of Clostridium difficile harboring antimicrobial resistance between farm animals and humans. Journal of clinical microbiology, 56(3):e01384-17.
Knight DR, Riley TV (2019). Genomic delineation of zoonotic origins of Clostridium difficile. Frontiers in public health, 20;7:164.
Kordus SL, Thomas AK, Lacy DB (2022). Clostridioides difficile toxins: mechanisms of action and antitoxin therapeutics. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 20(5):285-98.
Lim SC, Knight DR, Riley TV (2020). Clostridium difficile and one health. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 1;26(7):857-63.
Martínez-Meléndez A, Cruz-López F, Morfin-Otero R, Maldonado-Garza HJ, Garza-González E (2022). An update on Clostridioides difficile binary toxin. Toxins, 27;14(5):305.
Pires RN, Caurio CF, Saldanha GZ, Martins AF, Pasqualotto AC (2018). Clostridium difficile contamination in retail meat products in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 22:345-6.
Rodriguez C, Taminiau B, Van Broeck J, Delmée M, Daube G (2016). Clostridium difficile in food and animals: a comprehensive review. Advances in Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Public Health, 4:65-92.
Rodriguez-Palacios A, Mo KQ, Shah BU, Msuya J, Bijedic N, Deshpande A, Ilic S (2020). Global and historical distribution of Clostridioides difficile in the human diet (1981–2019): systematic review and meta-analysis of 21886 samples reveal sources of heterogeneity, high-risk foods, and unexpected higher prevalence toward the tropic. Frontiers in Medicine, 27;7:9.
Saha S, Kapoor S, Tariq R, Schuetz AN, Tosh PK, Pardi DS, Khanna S (2019). Increasing antibiotic resistance in Clostridioides difficile: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Anaerobe, 1;58:35-46.
Schnizlein MK, Young VB (2022). Capturing the environment of the Clostridioides difficile infection cycle. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology,19(8):508-20.
Sholeh M, Krutova M, Forouzesh M, Mironov S, Sadeghifard N, Molaeipour L, Maleki A, Kouhsari E (2020). Antimicrobial resistance in Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile derived from humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, 9:1-1.
van Werkhoven CH, Ducher A, Berkell M, Mysara M, Lammens C, Torre-Cisneros J, Rodríguez-Baño J, Herghea D, Cornely OA, Biehl LM, Bernard L (2021). Incidence and predictive biomarkers of Clostridioides difficile infection in hospitalized patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics. Nature communications, 14;12(1):2240.
Weese JS (2010). Clostridium difficile in food–-innocent bystander or serious threat?. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 1;16(1):3-10.
Weese JS (2020). Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile in animals. Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation, 32(2):213-21.