Investigation of Epidemiology and Assessment of Antimicrobial Resistance of Clostridioides difficile in Animal-Based Foods

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1Allah Nawaz Khan*,2Arslan Rasheed, 3Qurat-Ul-Ain, 4Qurat-Ul-Ain, 5Abia Mushtaque, 3Mehwish Saeed,6Tehreem Fatima Tariq


Clostridioides difficile, epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance, meat


In hospitalized patients, the prevalent nosocomial bacterium Clostridioides difficile causes diarrhea and gastrointestinal issues. The majority of C. difficile cases in the community are unconnected to antibiotic prescriptions or hospitalization, hence the dietary component has been highlighted as a vector of infection transmission. To look at the occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile isolated from raw meat and carcass surface swab samples, an existing survey was created. A total of 135 surface swab samples of raw beef and carcass were taken. Using a mix of biochemical methods and culture, C. difficile was isolated. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was devised in order to evaluate antibiotic resistance in isolates. There was evidence of C. difficile contamination in 4.57% of the samples analyzed. The pathogens were found in about 2.45% of raw meat samples and 3.77% of surface swabs from carcasses. There was evidence of resistance to tetracycline (75.67%), erythromycin (67.75%), metronidazole (37.55%), ciprofloxacin (42.65%), and clindamycin (55.43%). Meropenem and chloramphenicol had the lowest levels of resistance to the C. difficile bacteria (15.56% and 14.77%), respectively. C. difficile bacteria were shown to be lethal and antibiotic-resistant in surface swab samples taken from carcasses and raw meat. According to this study, food animals, particularly sheep and cattle, are carriers of C. difficile during the slaughter stage, which causes the carcasses in the slaughterhouse to be contaminated.

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