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Dr. Muhammad Akram Khan
Dr. Sarwar Malik
Dr. Shaukat Hussain
Dr. Kainat Rashid


Insulin Resistance, Glucose Intolerance, Insulin Therapy, Oral Hypoglycemic Medication, HOMA-IR, OGTT


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Two primary forms of diabetes treatment include insulin therapy and oral hypoglycaemic drugs.

Methodology: This cross-sectional observational study, which took place at Capital Hospital Islamabad between September 2023 and March 2024, involved patients with diabetes mellitus aged 18 to 75 who had been diagnosed with the disease; patients without diseases influencing glucose metabolism were excluded.

Results: Medical history, fasting blood glucose levels, OGTT findings, HOMA-IR values, physical activity, and food habits were the main findings. According to the type of treatment, there are notable variations in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance; insulin therapy generally produces better results in terms of glucose control.

Conclusion: By highlighting the intricacy of diabetes pathophysiology and the necessity of individualized treatment plans to enhance patient outcomes, this study offers important new understandings into the various ways that diabetes management techniques affect metabolic health.

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