ASSOCIATION BETWEEN STRESS AND CORTISOL LEVEL WITH SEVERITY OF STUTTERING

Main Article Content

Saima Abbas Virk
Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sikander Ghayas Khan
Hina Sameeullah

Keywords

Stuttering, Stammering, Serum Cortisol, DASS

Abstract

Background: Stuttering is defined as a disturbance in the rhythm of speech. Stuttering is characterized by "a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is interrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words, or phrases, and involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the stutterer is unable to produce sounds.


Objective: The objective of this research was to investigate the association between stress, cortisol levels, and the severity of stuttering.


Methodology: A Comparative Cross-Sectional study design was employed for this research. 65 The sample size 65 was calculated based on a previous study that was done in 2017 “Awareness about stammering and Self Therapy of Stutterers (Biomedical Research of Complex Word of Neurological Sciences) the online sample size calculated was used to evaluate the sample by using 95% confidence interval 8% level of significant. Children and adults of age from 4 to 30 years were included. Individuals with co-morbid conditions such as heart disease and endocrinology disorders were excluded from the study. A convenience sampling technique was used, and data was collected for 6 months from Children's Hospital Lahore and other private settings.


Results: Among 65 study respondents, 16 stammers showed high, 12 showed below and 37 people showed normal range means out of 100%. 56% of participants were normal 18.4% below and 24% showed high levels of serum cortisol. Co-relation was found but frequency was not as high as expected.


Conclusion: It is concluded that there was no significant relationship between stress and Cortisol levels among stutterers. The physical aspects and secondary behavior of stutterers were influenced directly and indirectly by stuttering.

Abstract 290 | PDF Downloads 21

References

1. Busan P, Neef NE, Rogić Vidaković M, Battaglini PP, Sommer M. The Neurophysiology of Developmental Stuttering: Unraveling the Mysteries of Fluency. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2022 Jan 27;15:833870.
2. Almudhi A, Gabr SA. Green tea consumption and the management of adrenal stress hormones in adolescents who stutter. Biomedical Reports. 2022 Apr 1;16(4):1-9.
3. Yekta HS, Fakoori F, Mohammadi H, Vaziri S. The Association between Sex Hormones and Developmental Stuttering Disorder: A Systematic Review. Journal of Molecular Biology Research. 2020;10(1):185-.
4. Maiers J. Mindfulness Meditation in Speech-Language Pathology Intervention: A Review.
5. Jarrett AG. Salivary Cortisol Levels of Children with Reading Difficulties. Arkansas State University; 2020.
6. Bayat M, Boostani R, Sabeti M, Yadegari F, Taghavi M, Pirmoradi M, Chakrabarti P, Nami M. Speech related anxiety in adults who stutter. Journal of Psychophysiology. 2022 Jul 21.
7. Bauerly KR, Mefferd A. The effects of attentional focus on speech motor control in adults who stutter with and without social evaluative threat. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 2023 Sep 1;77:105995.
8. Noreen H, Khan SG, Iftikhar N, Malik SN. Awareness about stuttering and self-therapy of stutter in the adult stutters. Biomedical Research (0970-938X). 2017 Nov 17;28.
9. Almudhi A, Gabr SA. Associations between glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, oxidative stress markers, and cognitive capacity in adolescents who stutter. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2023 Mar 1;30(3):103580.
10. Vasaghi-Gharamaleki B, Mirzaii-Dizgah I, Arani-Kashani Z. Salivary cortisol level and severity of xerostomia in patients who stutter. South African Dental Journal. 2016 May;71(4):162-5.
11. Bernard R, Hofslundsengen H, Frazier Norbury C. Anxiety and depression symptoms in children and adolescents who stutter: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2022 Feb 9;65(2):624-44.
12. Tsur AM, Hershkovich S, Zucker I, Lutski M, Pinhas-Hamiel O, Vivante A, Fischman M, Amir O, Rotchild J, Gerstein HC, Cukierman-Yaffe T. Stuttering and incident type 2 diabetes: a population-based study of 2.2 million adolescents. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2021 Apr 1;106(4):e978-87.
13. Bauerly KR. Attentional biases in adults who stutter before and following social threat induction. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica. 2022 Jul 18;74(4):239-53.
14. Mohammadi H, Joghataei MT, Rahimi Z, Faghihi F, Khazaie H, Farhangdoost H, Mehrpour M. Sex steroid hormones and sex hormone binding globulin levels, CYP17 MSP AI (− 34 T: C) and CYP19 codon 39 (Trp: Arg) variants in children with developmental stuttering. Brain and language. 2017 Dec 1;175:47-56.
15. Tumanova V, Woods C, Wang Q. Effects of physiological arousal on speech motor control and speech motor practice in preschool-age children who do and do not stutter. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2020 Oct 16;63(10):3364-79.
16. Stoll SE, Mack L, Scheib JP, Pruessner J, Randerath J. Selective effects of psychosocial stress on plan based movement selection. Scientific Reports. 2022 Mar 30;12(1):5401.
17. Rezaeian M, Akbari M, Shirpoor AH, Moghadasi Z, Nikdel Z, Hejri M. Anxiety, social phobia, depression, and suicide among people who stutter; a review study. Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology. 2020 Apr 10;9(2):98-109.
18. Samson I, Nyberg J, Lindström E, Schalling E. “I Just Want People to Think I'm Normal”: An Interview Study of Young Swedish Women With Covert Stuttering. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 2023 Sep 11;32(5):2192-210.
19. Gerlach H, Hollister J, Caggiano L, Zebrowski PM. The utility of stuttering support organization conventions for young people who stutter. Journal of fluency disorders. 2019 Dec 1;62:105724.
20. Singh R, Singh S, Sharma A, Arya R. Impact of anxiety on stuttering: Neurobehavioral aspects. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences. 2019 Apr 1;6(2):55.
21. Roney DM. Listener Perceptions of Stuttering Struggle Behaviors (Doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado).
22. Dillon R, Teoh AN, Dillon D. Voice Analysis for Stress Detection and Application in Virtual Reality to Improve Public Speaking in Real-time: A Review. arXiv preprint arXiv:2208.01041. 2022 Aug 1.
23. Croft RL, Byrd CT. Self-compassion and quality of life in adults who stutter. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 2020 Nov 12;29(4):2097-108.