A COMPREHENSIVE PHARMACOLOGICAL EXPLORATION AND ANTI-CANCER PROSPECTIVE OF STEM BARK OF CROTON BONPLANDIANUS

Main Article Content

Hina Yasin
Shaukat Mahmud
Hina Abrar
Kaneez Fatima
Hina Tabassum
Asma Basharat Ali

Keywords

Croton bonplandianus, bark extract, Pharmacological analysis, anti-cancer potential, Male albino mice, Male albino rats wistar strain

Abstract

Plants are the ultimate inevitability of planet and for the mankind and animal kingdom. Herbal plant not only source of nutrition however used as remedy from ancient period. The main goal of this study is to provide a platform for researchers to examine the potential health benefits of plant extracts across a range of illness states. The bark of the plant Croton bonplandianus were selected for this research study. Different pharmacological activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, anticancer, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activities were performed followed by histopathological studies and brine shrimp bioassay to evaluate the therapeutic and toxic potential of different extracts of bark. The histopathological screening was reported to strengthen the pharmacological studies regarding the safety profile of extracts of the bark of the Croton bonplandianus. The results revealed that the various plant extracts were shown significant dose dependent analgesic activity and potentially nephroprotective and hepatoprotective may be due to the presence of antioxidant flavonoids and phytosteroides. Three distinct cancer cell lines were selected for estimation of cytotoxic activity and the results shown mild to moderate activity. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were also performed by MABA assay and agar tube dilution method respectively. Aforementioned research opens an unlimited access for the investigation of therapeutically active constituents, isolation of pure compounds and preclinical and clinical studies. Furthermore, extensive research in the several directions must be escorted to discover the new drug molecules that may be used as a raw material in the pharmaceutical industries.

Abstract 75 | Pdf Downloads 18

References

1. Sandberg F, Corrigan D. Natural remedies: their origins and uses: CRC Press; 2001.
2. Füllbeck M, Michalsky E, Dunkel M, Preissner R. Natural products: sources and databases. Natural product reports. 2006;23(3):347-56.
3. Malesh B, Satish S. Antimicrobial Activity of some important medicinal plant against plant and human pathogen. World Journal of Agriculture Sciences. 2008;4(5):839-43.
4. Dubey N, Kumar R, Tripathi P. Global promotion of herbal medicine: India's opportunity. Current science. 2004;86(1):37-41.
5. Knowles A. Recent developments of safer formulations of agrochemicals. The Environmentalist. 2008;28(1):35-44.
6. Khan MSA, Ahmad I. Herbal medicine: current trends and future prospects. New Look to phytomedicine: Elsevier; 2019. p. 3-13.
7. Mondal S, Ghosh D, Ramakrishna K. A complete profile on blind-your-eye mangrove Excoecaria agallocha L.(Euphorbiaceae): Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects. Pharmacogn Rev. 2016;10(20):123.
8. Mabberley DJ. Mabberley's plant-book: a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses: Cambridge University Press; 2017.
9. Muchane MN. Population Status, Distribution Patterns and Conservation Needs of Endangered Croton alienus Pax in Kenya. International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management. 2019;4(5):120.
10. Block S, Baccelli C, Tinant B, Van Meervelt L, Rozenberg R, Jiwan J-LH, et al. Diterpenes from the leaves of Croton zambesicus. Phytochemistry. 2004;65(8):1165-71.
11. Palmer E, Pitman N, Codd LEW. Trees of southern Africa covering all known indigenous species in the Republic of South Africa, South-West Africa, Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. 1972.
12. Hecker E. Cocarcinogenesis and tumor promoters of the diterpene ester type as possible carcinogenic risk factors. Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology. 1981;99(1-2):103-24.
13. Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, medicinal plants: Lavoisier publishing; 1995.
14. Jeeshna M, Mallikadevi T, Paulsamy S. Screening of the weed plant species, Croton bonplandianum Baill. for larvicidal activity of Aedes aegypti. Journal of Biopesticides. 2010;3(1):192.
15. Ngadjui BT, Folefoc GG, Keumedjio F, Dongo E, Sondengam BL, Connolly JD. Crotonadiol, a labdane diterpenoid from the stem barkof Croton zambesicus. Phytochemistry. 1999;51(1):171-4.
16. Baccelli C, Block S, Van Holle B, Schanck A, Chapon D, Tinant B, et al. Diterpenes isolated from Croton zambesicus inhibit KCl-induced contraction. Planta medica. 2005;71(11):1036-9.
17. Block S, Stevigny C, De Pauw-Gillet M-C, de Hoffmann E, Llabres G, Adjakidje V, et al. ent-Trachyloban-3β-ol, a new cytotoxic diterpene from Croton zambesicus. Planta medica. 2002;68(07):647-9.
18. Ngadjui BT, Abegaz BM, Keumedjio F, Folefoc GN, Kapche GW. Diterpenoids from the stem bark of Croton zambesicus. Phytochemistry. 2002;60(4):345-9.
19. Vadlapudi V. In vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of selected Indian medicinal plants. Pharmacophore. 2010;1(3):214-9.
20. Asthma A, Mall H, Dixit K, Gupta S. Fungitoxic Properties of Latex of Plants with Special Reference to That of Croton bonplandianum Boill. International Journal of Crude Drug Research. 1989;27(1):25-8.
21. Divya S, Naveen Krishna K, Ramachandran S, Dhanaraju M. Wound healing and in vitro antioxidant activities of Croton bonplandianum leaf extract in rats. Global Journal of Pharmacology. 2011;5(3):159-63.
22. Saggoo MIS, Walia S, Kaur R. Evaluation of genotoxic and antimicrobial potential of Croton bonplandianum Baill. Archives of Applied Science Research. 2010;2(2):211-6.
23. Torres MCM, Assunção JC, Santiago GMP, Andrade‐Neto M, Silveira ER, Costa‐Lotufo LV, et al. Larvicidal and nematicidal activities of the leaf essential oil of Croton regelianus. Chemistry & biodiversity. 2008;5(12):2724-8.
24. Bhakat R, Sen U. Ethnomedicinal plant conservation through sacred groves. Tribes and Tribals. 2008;2:55-8.
25. Chaudhuri AB. Endangered medicinal plants: Daya Books; 2007.
26. Rajakaruna N, Harris CS, Towers G. Antimicrobial activity of plants collected from serpentine outcrops in Sri Lanka. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2002;40(3):235-44.
27. Das AK, Dutta B, Sharma G. Medicinal plants used by different tribes of Cachar district, Assam. 2008.
28. Chandel K, Shukla G, Sharma N. Biodiversity in medicinal and aromatic plants in India. 1996.
29. Dutta S, Chaudhuri TK. Pharmacological aspect of Croton bonplandianus Baill: A comprehensive review. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2018;7:811-3.
30. Okokon JE, Nwafor PA. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of ethanolic root extract of Croton zambesicus. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2010;23(4):385-92.
31. Pereira MT, Charret TS, Lopez BG, Carneiro MJ, Sawaya AC, Pascoal VD, et al. The in vivo anti-inflammatory potential of Myrciaria glazioviana fruits and its chemical profile using mass spectrometry. Food Bioscience. 2020:100777.
32. Umoh U, Thomas P, Okokon J, Eseyin O. Comparative study on anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the leaf, stem and root of Dracaena arborea (Wild) Linn.(Asparagaceae). Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research. 2020;9(2):40-6.
33. Langat MK. The Phytochemistry of Three African Croton Species: University of Surrey (United Kingdom); 2009.
34. Okokon JE, Udoh AE, Nyong EE, Amazu LU. Analgesic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Solanum anomalum. African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2020;9(1).
35. Nwafor PA, Okwuasaba F. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root in rodents. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84(2-3):125-9.
36. Okonkon J, Bassey A, Obot J. Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus Muell.(thunder plant) in alloxan diabetic rats. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2006;3(2):21-6.
37. Yasin H, Mahmud S, Bano R, Abrar H, Fatima K, Bushra R. Ameliorating Effects of Croton Bonplandianus Leaves against Gentamicin Induced Acute Liver and Kidney Injury: A Biochemical and Histopathological Investigation. Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences. 2023;50(3).
38. Fatima T, Abrar H, Jahan N, Shamim S, Ahmed N, Ahmed W. Molecular marker identification, antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory responsiveness of malonic acid capped silver nanoparticle. Front Pharmacol. 2024;14:1319613.
39. Yasin H, Mahmud S, Abrar H, Fatima K, Bushra R, Zahid S. Antinociceptive and Cytotoxic Effect of Extracts of Croton bonplandianus Leaves. 2022.
40. Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW. Carrageenin-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for antiinflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1962;111(3):544-7.
41. Okokon JE, Nwafor PA, Noah K. Nephroprotective effect of Croton zambesicus root extract against gentimicin-induced kidney injury. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4(12):969-72.
42. Ayza MA, Rajkapoor B, Wondafrash DZ, Berhe AH. Protective Effect of Croton macrostachyus (Euphorbiaceae) Stem Bark on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats. J Exp Pharmacol. 2020;12:275.
43. Urrutia-Hernández TA, Santos-López JA, Benedí J, Sánchez-Muniz FJ, Velázquez-González C, la O-Arciniega D, et al. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Croton hypoleucus extract in an induced-necrosis model in rats. Molecules. 2019;24(14):2533.
44. Horton ML, Hoffmann GRP, Tan R, Franks KS. Microplate Alamar Blue Assay for. Staphylococcus epidermidis.
45. Pettit RK, Weber CA, Kean MJ, Hoffmann H, Pettit GR, Tan R, et al. Microplate Alamar blue assay for Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm susceptibility testing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49(7):2612-7.
46. Choudhary MI, Parveen Z, Jabbar A, Ali I. Antifungal steroidal lactones from Withania coagulance. Phytochemistry. 1995;40(4):1243-6.
47. Abbas B, Fatima T. Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities of Cymbopogon citratus & Psidium guajava from sialkot origin. Evaluation. 2018;1:155-63.
48. Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods. 1983;65(1-2):55-63.
49. Asaduzzaman M, Rana M, Hasan S, Hossain M, Das N. Cytotoxic (brine shrimp lethality bioassay) and antioxidant investigation of Barringtonia acutangula (L.). Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2015;6(8):1179-85.
50. Yasin H, Mahmud S, Rizwani GH, Perveen R, Abrar H, Fatima K. Effects of aqueous leaves extract of Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb) Planch on liver and kidney histopathology of albino rats. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2019;32(2).
51. Khalid S, Rizwan G, Yasin H, Perveen R, Abrar H. Medicinal Importance of Holoptelea Integrifolia (Roxb). Planch–Its Biological and Pharmacological Activities. Nat Prod Chem Res 2: 124 doi: 10.4172/2329-6836.1000124 Page 2 of 4 seasonal variation of airborne pollen has been reported. Bulk of pollens originates from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types have been recorded on more than 1% of annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia. 2013.
52. Nasri H, Mortazavi M, Ghorbani A, Shahbazian H, Kheiri S, Baradaran A, et al. Oxford-MEST classification in IgA nephropathy patients: A report from Iran. Journal of nephropathology. 2012;1(1):31.
53. Bancroft JD, Cook HC. Manual of histological techniques and their diagnostic application: Churchill Livingstone; 1994.
54. Nematbakhsh M, Ashrafi F, Safari T, Talebi A, Nasri H, Mortazavi M, et al. Administration of vitamin E and losartan as prophylaxes in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity model in rats. Journal of nephrology. 2012;25(3):410.
55. Eshraghi-Jazi F, Nematbakhsh M, Nasri H, Talebi A, Haghighi M, Pezeshki Z, et al. The protective role of endogenous nitric oxide donor (L-arginine) in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity: Gender related differences in rat model. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 2011;16(11):1389.
56. Dhondup T, Qian Q. Electrolyte and acid-base disorders in chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney failure. Blood Purif. 2017;43(1-3):179-88.
57. Bagshaw SM, Gibney RTN. Conventional markers of kidney function. Crit Care Med. 2008;36(4):S152-S8.
58. den Bakker E, Gemke RJ, Bökenkamp A. Endogenous markers for kidney function in children: a review. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2018;55(3):163-83.
59. Madrigal-Santillán E, Madrigal-Bujaidar E, Álvarez-González I, Sumaya-Martínez MT, Gutiérrez-Salinas J, Bautista M, et al. Review of natural products with hepatoprotective effects. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. 2014;20(40):14787.
60. Alkofahi A, Rupprecht J, Smith D, Chang C-J, McLaughlin J. Goniothalamicin and annonacin: Bioactive acetogenins from Goniothalamus giganteus (Annonaceae). Experientia. 1988;44(1):83-5.
61. Clarkson C, Maharaj VJ, Crouch NR, Grace OM, Pillay P, Matsabisa MG, et al. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants native to or naturalised in South Africa. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;92(2-3):177-91.
62. Bhandari J, Muhammad B, Thapa P, Shrestha BG. Study of phytochemical, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17(1):1-9.
63. Ganesan K, Xu B. A critical review on phytochemical profile and health promoting effects of mung bean (Vigna radiata). Food Science and Human Wellness. 2018;7(1):11-33.
64. Prochazka P, Hrabeta J, Vicha A, Cipro S, Stejskalova E, Musil Z, et al. Changes in MYCN expression in human neuroblastoma cell lines following cisplatin treatment may not be related to MYCN copy numbers. Oncol Rep. 2013;29(6):2415-21.
65. Holohan C, Van Schaeybroeck S, Longley DB, Johnston PG. Cancer drug resistance: an evolving paradigm. Nature Reviews Cancer. 2013;13(10):714-26.
66. Fatima K, Khalid S, Qadeer K, Yasin H, Abrar H, Bano R, et al. In Vitro Anticancer Activity on 3T3, PC3, and HeLa Cell Line and GC-MS Assay of Oil Fractions of Alstonia Scholaris Flower Obtained by Column Chromatography. Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences. 2022;49(11).
67. Suresh M, Alfonisan M, Alturaiki W, Al Aboody MS, Alfaiz FA, Premanathan M, et al. Investigations of bioactivity of Acalypha indica (L.), Centella asiatica (L.) and croton bonplandianus (Baill) against multidrug resistant bacteria and cancer cells. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2020:100359.
68. Kathiravan V, Ravi S, Ashokkumar S, Velmurugan S, Elumalai K, Khatiwada CP. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Croton sparsiflorus morong leaf extract and their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2015;139:200-5.

Most read articles by the same author(s)