CLINICAL ALTERATIONS CAUSED BY LEAD EXPOSURE IN COMMON CARP

Main Article Content

Sumaira
Ali Muhammad Yousafzai
Azam Jan Afridi

Keywords

Lead, Toxicity, Common carp, Bioaccumulation, Hematology, Histopathological Lead toxicity in Common Carp

Abstract

The current study investigated the toxicological effects of lead acetate trihydrate on bioaccumulation, hematology and histopathological changes in the gills and muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fishes were divided into seven groups and were treated with different concentrations of lead. Lead bioaccumulation was analyzed in gills and muscles with the help of atomic absorption. Gill tissue absorbed the maximum concentration of lead, followed by muscles. After 24 hours, decrease in the concentration of Hb (65.13±16.81) and RBCs (0.52±0.137) and a maximum increase in the concentration of lymphocytes (91±21.30) with a dose of 30mg /l lead was observed.


Results showed that in every experiment, the amount of lead in the gills increased gradually with the increase  of the doses, as 259.83±58.4 with a dose of 5mg/I, 276.9±71.1 using dose of 10mg/l, 284.3±70.1 treated with 15mg/l, 299.63± 76.80 deal with 20mg/l , 310.26± 79.61 by 25mg and 331.4± 85.42 with a dose of 30mg . A maximum decrease in the concentration of Hb (65.13±16.81) and RBCs (0.52±0.137) and increase in the concentration of lymphocytes (91±21.30) with a dose of 30mg /l was observed from 24 hours exposure. Our findings suggest that common carp exposed to lead develop. histological alterations such as epithelial lifting, interlamellar spaces, gill bridging, curling filaments, swelling, fusion and cell necrosis, irregular and inflammatory cells were observed in gill tissues, while inflammation,degenaration and necrosis of muscle fibers, edema of muscle bundles, and lesions were observed in muscle tissues.

Abstract 123 | pdf Downloads 31

References

1. AFRIDI AJ, ZUBERI A, YOUSAFZAI AM, KAMRAN M, Ullah .(2019). Hemp (Marijuana) reverted copper-induced toxic efects on the essential fatty acid profle of Labeo rohita and Cir-rhinus mrigala. Mol Biol Rep 46:391–401
2. AHMED, I., ZAKIYA, A., AND FAZIO, F., 2022. Effects of aquatic heavy metal intoxica-tion on the level of hematocrit and hemoglobin in fishes: a review. Frontiers in Environmental Science, vol. 10, 919204..
3. AHSAN KHAN, A. K., YOUSAFZAI, A. M., MUHAMMAD LATIF, M. L., ATIQ-UR-REHMAN, A. U. R., QAISAR KHAN, Q. K., AHMAD ZAIB, A. Z. and ABDUL AZIZ, A. A. (2014). Analysis of selected water quality parameters and heavy metals of Indus River at Beka Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
4. AKAHORI, A., GABRYELAK, T., JÓZWIAK, Z., and GONDKO, R. (1999). Zinc‐induced damage to carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) erythrocytes in vitro. iubmb life, 47(1), 89-98.
5. AL BAKHEET, S. A., ATTAFI, I. M., MAAYAH, Z. H., ABD-ALLAH, A. R., ASIRI, Y. A., and KORASHY, H. M., 2013. Effect of long-term human exposure to environmental heavy metals on the expression of detoxification and DNA repair genes. Environmental pollution, vol. 181, pp. 226-232.
6. AL-BUSAIDI, M., YESUDHASON, P., AL-MUGHAIRI, S., AL-RAHBI, W. A. K., AL-HARTHY, K. S., AL-MAZROOEI, N. A., and AL-HABSI, S. H. (2011). Toxic metals in commercial marine fish in Oman with reference to national and international stand-ards. Chemosphere, 85(1), 67-73.
7. ALTINOK, N., AND MURSELI, H. 2007. International database on human capital quali-ty. Economics Letters, 96(2), 237-244.N.M. Roy, S. DeWolf, A. Schutt, A. Wright, L. Steele, Neural alterations from lead exposure in zebrafish, Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 46 (2014) 40-48.
8. ALVES, L. C., and WOOD, C. M. 2006. The chronic effects of dietary lead in freshwater ju-venile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed elevated calcium diets. Aquatic toxicolo-gy, vol. 78(3), pp. 217-232.
9. AN LOON, J.C., 1980. Analyttical atomic absorption spectroscopy. Selected methods. Aca-demic press, New York, USA. pp.337.
10. ATLI, G., and CANLI, M. 2007. Enzymatic responses to metal exposures in a freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 145(2), pp.282-287.
11. AYOOLA, S. O., and ALAJABO, O. T. 2012. Acute toxicity and histopathological effects of engine oil on Sarotherodon melanotheron (Black Jaw Tilapia). American-Eurasian Journal of Toxicological Sciences, vol. 4(1), pp. 48-55.
12. BARATA, C., VARO, I., NAVARRO, J. C., ARUN, S., and PORTE, C. (2005). Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna exposed to redox cycling compounds. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, vol. 140 (2), pp.175-186.
13. BELMADANI, A., TRAMU, G., BETBEDER, A. M., STEYN, P. S., AND CREPPY, E. E. 1998. Regional selectivity to ochratoxin A, distribution and cytotoxicity in rat brain. Archives of toxicology, vol.72, pp.656-662.3.
14. BERNET, D., SCHMIDT, H., MEIER, W., BURKHARDT‐HOLM, P., & WAHLI, T. 1999. Histopathology in fish: proposal for a protocol to assess aquatic pollution. Journal of fish dis-eases, vol.22 (1), pp.25-34.
15. BHARATH, S. T., DAHIYA, S., SAUNDERS, A., & SRINIVASAN, A. 2011. Lending rela-tionships and loan contract terms. The Review of Financial Studies, vol. 24(4), pp.1141-1203.
16. BLAHOVA J, MODRA H, SEVEIKOVA M, MARSALEK P, ZELNICKOVA L, SKORIC.(2014). Metal Evaluation of biochemical, haematologial and histopathologial respons-es and recovery ability of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after exposure to atrazine herbicide. Biomed Res Intl. 20(14):1-8.
17. BURGER, J., and GOCHFELD, M. (2005). Heavy metals in commercial fish in New Jer-sey. Environmental research, 99(3), 403-412.
18. CAMUSSO, M., VIGANO, L.,and BALESTRINI, R., 1995. Bioconcentration of trace metals in rainbow trout: a field study. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol.31 (2), pp.133-141.
19. CANLI, M., and ATLI, G. (2003). The relationships between heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) levels and the size of six Mediterranean fish species. Environmental pollution, 121(1), 129-136.
20. CASTRO-GONZÁLEZ, M. I., and MÉNDEZ-ARMENTA, M. (2008). Heavy metals: Implica-tions associated to fish consumption. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, 26(3), 263-271.
21. DU PREEZ AND G. STEYN., 1992. “A preliminary investigation of the concentration of se-lected metals in the tissues and organs of the tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) from the Olifants River, Kruger National Park, South Africa,” Water SA, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 131–136.
22. DURAL, M., GÖKSU, M. Z. L., and ÖZAK, A. A., 2007. Investigation of heavy metal levels in economically important fish species captured from the Tuzla lagoon. Food chemis-try, vol.102, no.1, pp. 415-421..
23. EISLER, R. (1993). Zinc hazard to fish, wildlife, and invertebrates: a synoptic re-view. Contaminant Hazard Reviews, 10.
24. ERDORUL, O., and ERBILIR, F., 2007. Heavy metal and trace elements in various fish sam-ples from Sir Dam Lake, Kahramanmaras, Turkey. Environmental monitoring and assess-ment, vol.130, no. 1-3, pp. 373.
25. EZEMONYE, L. I., ADEBAYO, P. O., ENUNEKU, A. A., TONGO, I., and OGBOMIDA, E., 2019. Potential health risk consequences of heavy metal concentrations in surface water, shrimp (Macrobrachium macrobrachion) and fish (Brycinus longipinnis) from Benin River, Ni-geria. Toxicology reports, vol. 6, pp. 1-9.
26. FEREIDOUN, H., NOURDDIN, M. S., RREZA, N. A., MOHSEN, A., AHMAD, R., and POURIA, H. (2007). The effect of long-term exposure to particulate pollution on the lung func-tion of Teheranian and Zanjanian students. Pakistan Journal of physiology, 3(2).
27. FRANCES, J., ALLAN, G. L., and NOWAK, B. F., 1998. The effects of nitrite on the short-term growth of silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus). Aquaculture, vol.163 (1-2), pp. 63-72.
28. GILL, T. S., and PANT, J. C., 1987. Hematological and pathological effects of chromium toxi-cosis in the freshwater fish, Barbus conchonius Ham. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol.35, pp.241-250.
29. GITAU, B. M. (2020). occupation health risks associated with garbage recycling at dandora dumpsite, nairobi county, kenya (doctoral dissertation, school of pure and applied sciences, ken-yatta university).
30. GROSS, S. B., PFITZER, E. A., YEAGER, D. W., and KEHOE, R. A., 1975. Lead in human tissues. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol.32 (3), pp.638-651.
31. HADI, A. A., and ALWAN, S. F. (2012). Histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of fresh water fish, Tilapia zillii, exposed to aluminum. International Journal of Pharmacy & Life Sciences, 3(11).
32. HEATH, A. G. (2018). Water pollution and fish physiology. CRC press.
33. HEMALATHA, S., and BANERJEE, T. K., 1997). Histopathological analysis of sublethal tox-icity of zinc chloride to the respiratory organs of the airbreathing catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Biological Research, vol. 30, pp.11-22.
34. JÄRUP, L. (2003). Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British medical bulletin, 68(1), 167-182.
35. JIRAUNGKOORSKUL, W., KOSAI, P., SAHAPHONG, S., KIRTPUTRA, P., CHAWLAB, J., and CHARUCHAROEN, S., 2007. Evaluation of micronucleus test’s sensitivity in freshwa-ter fish species. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol.1 (2), pp.56-63.
36. JOSHI, S. A., and TSAI, L. W. (2002). Jacobian analysis of limited-DOF parallel manipula-tors. J. Mech. Des., 124(2), 254-258.
37. KAMARUZZAMAN, B. Y., RINA, Z., JOHN, B. A., and JALAL, K. C. A. (2011). Heavy metal accumulation in commercially important fishes of South West Malaysian coast. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, 5(6), 595-602.
38. KAMRAN M, RAZZAQ H, NOORULLAH M, AHMAD M, ZUBERI A (2023) Comparative analysis of genetic diversity, growth performance, disease resistance and expression of growth and immune related genes among fve diferent stocks of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822). Aqua-culture 739277:1–13
39. KAMRAN M, YAQUB A, MALKANI N, ANJUM KM, AWAN MN, PAKNEJAD H (2020) Identifcation and phylogenetic analysis of Channa species from riverine system of Pakistan us-ing COI gene as a DNA barcoding marker. J Bioresour Manag 7(2):10
40. KOUSAR, S., and JAVED, M. (2014). Heavy metals toxicity and bioaccumulation patterns in the body organs of four fresh water fish species. Pak. Vet. J, 34(2), 161-164.
41. MALLATT, J., 1985. Fish gill structural changes induced by toxicants and other irritants: a sta-tistical review. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol.42(4), pp.630-648.
42. MARY, S. C. H., BHUVANESWARI, D., and ANANDAN, R., 2015. Biochemical and his-topathological studies on lead nitrate induced toxicity in fresh water fish grass carp (Ctenopha-ryngodon Idella).
43. MASTAN, S. A. (2014). Heavy metals concentration in various tissues of two freshwater fish-es, Labeo rohita and Channa striatus. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technolo-gy, 8(2), 166-170.
44. MUNSHI, J. S., and DUTTA, H. M. (1996). Fish morphology: Horizon of new research.
45. Murtaza MUH, Zuberi A, Ahmad M, Amir I, Kamran M, Ahmad M (2020) Infuence of early rearing environment on water-borne cortisol and expression of stress-related genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Mol Biol Rep 47:5051–5060
46. NAKAGAWA, H., NAKAGAWA, K., and SATO, T., 1995. Evaluation of erythrocyte 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in the blood of carp Cyprinus carpio as an indicator in fish with water lead pollution. Fisheries science, vol. 61(1), pp. 91-95.
47. NRIAGU, J. O. and PACYNA, J. M. (1988). Quantitative assessment of worldwide contami-nation of air, water and soils by trace metals. nature, 333(6169), 134-139.
48. ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC, OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Or-ganization for Economic, Paris, France, 1994.
49. RAHMAN, M. S., MOLLA, A. H., SAHA, N. and HMAN, A. (2012). Study on heavy metals levels and its risk assessment in some edible fishes from Bangshi River, Savar, Dhaka, Bangla-desh. Food chemistry, 134(4), 1847-1854.
50. RAHMAN, M. S., MOLLA, A. H., SAHA, N., and RAHMAN, A. (2012). Study on heavy metals levels and its risk assessment in some edible fishes from Bangshi River, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Food chemistry, 134(4), 1847-1854.
51. RAUF, A., JAVED, M. and UBAIDULLAH, M. (2009). heavy metal levels in three major carps (catla catla, labeo rohita and cirrhina mrigala) from the river ravi, pakistan. Pakistan Veter-inary Journal, 29(1).
52. ROGANOVIC-ZAFIROVA, D. R., JORDANOVA, M., PANOV, S. and VELKOVA-JORDANOVSKA, L. (2003). Hepatic capillariasis in the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus merid-ionalis petenyi Heck.) from Lake Ohrid.
53. RUIZ-PICOS, R., and LÓPEZ-LÓPEZ, E., 2012. Gill and liver histopathology in Goodea atri-pinnis Jordan, related to oxidative stress in Yuriria lake, Mexico. International Journal of Mor-phology, vol.30 (3), pp.1139-1149.
54. SANTOS, M. A., and HALL, A.,1990. Influence of inorganic lead on the biochemical blood composition of the eel, Anguilla anguilla L. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, vol.20(1), pp.7-9.
55. SARKAR, T., ALAM, M. M., PARVIN, N., FARDOUS, Z., CHOWDHURY, A. Z., HOSS-AIN, S. and BISWAS, N., 2016. Assessment of heavy metals contamination and human health risk in shrimp collected from different farms and rivers at Khulna-Satkhira region, Bangla-desh. Toxicology reports, vol. 3, pp.346-350.
56. SCHELL, L. M., GALLO, M. V., DENHAM, M., and RAVENSCROFT, j. (2006). Effects of pollution on human growth and development: an introduction. Journal of physiological anthro-pology, 25(1), 103-112.
57. SHAH, N., KHAN, A., ALI, R., MARIMUTHU, K., UDDIN, M. N., RIZWAN, M., and KHISROON, M. (2020). Monitoring bioaccumulation (in gills and muscle tissues), hematology, and genotoxic alteration in Ctenopharyngodon idella exposed to selected heavy metals. BioMed research international, 2020.
58. SHAH, S. L., 2006. Hematological parameters in tench Tinca tinca after short term exposure to lead. Journal of Applied Toxicology: An International Journal, vol.26 (3), pp.223-228.
59. SIOEN, I., DE HENAUW, S., VERDONCK, F., VAN THUYNE, N., and VAN CAMP, J. (2007). Development of a nutrient database and distributions for use in a probabilistic risk–benefit analysis of human seafood consumption. Journal of Food Composition and Analy-sis, 20(8), 662-670.
60. SONG, S. B., XU, Y., and ZHOU, B. S., 2006. Effects of hexachlorobenzene on antioxidant status of liver and brain of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Chemosphere, vol.65, no.4, pp. 699-706.
61. STANLEY, O. N., and OMEREBELE, U. A., 2010. Changes in the hematological parameters of Clarias gariepinus exposed to lead poisoning. Journal of Fsheries International, vol.5 (4), pp.72-76.
62. STORELLI, M. M., BARONE, G., STORELLI, A., and MARCOTRIGIANO, G. O., 2006. Trace metals in tissues of Mugilids (Mugil auratus, Mugil capito, and Mugil labrosus) from the Mediterranean Sea. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, vol.77, no.1, pp.43-50.
63. TAWARI-FUFEYIN, P., IGETEI, J., and OKOIDIGUN, M. E., 2008. Changes in the catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to acute cadmium and lead poisoning. Bioscience Research Com-munications, vol.20 (5), pp.271-276.
64. TULABY DEZFULY, Z., ARAMOON, A., ALISHAHI, M., HALIMI, M., & RAHNAMA, R., 2020. The effects of lead toxicity on the hematological parameters common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at varying salinity levels. Iranian Journal of Toxicology, vol.14, no.1, pp. 1-8.
65. VELKOVA-JORDANOSKA, L. I. D. I. J. A., and KOSTOSKI, G. (2005). Histopathological analysis of liver in fish (Barbus meridionalis petenyi Heckel) in reservoir Trebeništa. Natura Croatica: Periodicum Musei Historiae Naturalis Croatici, 14(2), 147-153.
66. VINODHINI, R., and NARAYANAN, M. (2008). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio (Common carp). International Journal of Environmental Sci-ence & Technology, 5, 179-182.
67. VUTUKURU, S. S., 2005. Acute effects of hexavalent chromium on survival, oxygen con-sumption, hematological parameters and some biochemical profiles of the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. International Journal of environmental Research and Public health, vol. 2, no.3, pp. 456-462.
68. WANG, L., XU, T., LEI, W. W., LIU, D. M., LI, Y. J., XUAN, R. J., and MA, J. J.,2011. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic changes in the testis of freshwater crab, Sino-potamon henanense. PLoS One, vol.6, no.11, e27853.
69. WENDELAAR BONGA, S. E., and LOCK, R. A. C., 1992. Toxicants and osmoregulation in fish.
70. Yaqub A, Awan MN, Kamran M, Majeed I (2021) Evaluation of potential applications of die-tary probiotic (Bacillus licheniformis SB3086): efect on growth, digestive enzyme activity, he-matological, biochemical, and immune response of Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 22(5):1–12
71. YILMAZ, A. B., SANGÜN, M. K., YAĞLIOĞLU, D., and TURAN, C. (2010). Metals (ma-jor, essential to non-essential) composition of the different tissues of three demersal fish species from Iskenderun Bay, Turkey. Food chemistry, 123(2), 410-415.
72. YILMAZ, F., ÖZDEMIR, N., DEMIRAK, A., and TUNA, A. L. (2007). Heavy metal levels in two fish species Leuciscus cephalus and Lepomis gibbosus. Food chemistry, 100(2), 830-835.
73. YOUSAFZAI, A. M. and SHAKOORI, A. R., 2006. Bioaccumulation of chromium, nickle, lead, copper and zinc in the skin of Tor putitora as an indicator of the presence of heavy metal load in River Kabul, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of zoology, vol.38 ,no.4, pp. 341.
74. YOUSAFZAI, A. M., CHIVERS, D. P., KHAN, A. R., AHMAD, I., and SIRAJ, M., 2010. Comparison of heavy metals burden in two freshwater fishes Wallago attu and Labeo dyochei-lus with regard to their feeding habits in natural ecosystem. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, vol. 42, no.5.
75. ZHANG, W., and WANG, W. X. (2012). Large-scale spatial and interspecies differences in trace elements and stable isotopes in marine wild fish from Chinese waters. Journal of hazard-ous materials, 215, 65-74.
76. ZHAO, S., FENG, C., QUAN, W., CHEN, X., NIU, J., and SHEN, Z. (2012). Role of living environments in the accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in fishes and crabs in the Yangtze River Estuary, China. Marine pollution bulletin, 64(6), 1163-1171.U.S Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 85 (1985) 1-30.
77. ZIRONG, X., and SHIJUN, B., 2007. Effects of waterborne Cd exposure on glutathione me-tabolism in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) liver. Ecotoxicology and environmental safe-ty, vol.67, no.1, pp.89-94.