THE IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF EAR,NOSE, AND THROAT CONDITIONS

Main Article Content

Mohammad Iqbal
Muhammad Hanif Khan
Hamid Ur Rehman
Altaf Hussain
Jamil Ahmad
Muhammad Ayaz

Keywords

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Abstract

Objectives: The impacts of Air Pollutants on the development and progression of Ear,Nose, and Throat Conditions. In this study, we evaluated the impact of air pollution on the prevalence of ENT diseases.


 


Methods: We identified cases of ENT disease occurring in 2023, as recorded in ENT and head and neck department Bolan Medical College Quetta, and explored their associations with the levels of five air pollutants: sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM10 particles; particulates ≤10 μm in aerodynamic diameter). Subjects diagnosed with at least one of the five studied ENT diseases were included in analysis, but those aged under 19 years were excluded. Linear associations between ENT disease frequency and pollutant levels were evaluated by calculating Spearman correlations. After adjusting for age, gender, and geographic region, multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).


 


Results:  A total of 7,399 subjects with ENT diseases were identified. A linear association was evident between PM10 concentration and the frequency of septal deviation (Spearman coefficient, 0.507; P=0.045). After adjustment, the PM10 level was associated with high odds ratios for chronic rhinosinusitis (1.22; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.46) and septal deviation (1.43; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.67). Both of these conditions were more prevalent in males.


 


Conclusion:  We found that increased ambient concentrations of PM10 particles were clearly associated with increased the risk of chronic rhinosinusitis and septal deviation; the exposure-response relationship was definitive.

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