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Moeen Akhtar Malik
Wajid Iqbal
Younas Ahmad
Rukhsar Muhammad Jaffar
Atta Ul Haq Burki
Abdul Wasaay Khurram


Gastric intestinal metaplasia, tobacco, gastric cancer, Quantity of Smoking


Objectives: To investigate the associations between smoking habits (duration, intensity, and quantity) and the risk of developing GIM.

Materials and Methods:  For this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 180 patients of both genders. Among them, 69 individuals presented with GIM, while 111 participants served as controls without GIM. Each participant completed standardized questionnaires and underwent a study endoscopy, including gastric mapping biopsies. The diagnosis of GIM was confirmed by identifying intestinal metaplasia in any non-cardia gastric biopsy. The study duration was 6 month from (August, 2023 to January, 2024) and was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital Islamabad.

Results: The mean age of all enrolled 102 patients was 46.08±11.7 years with mean BMI of 25.46±5.13 kg/m2. Among the participants, 62 (60.8%) were male, while the remaining 40 (39.2%) were female. Current smokers showed a twofold increased risk for gastric intestinal metaplasia compared to those who never smoked (odds ratio [OR] 2.452, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-3.64). Additionally, among individuals with a history of smoking, both increasing duration and total dose were significantly linked to a higher risk of developing gastric intestinal metaplasia. However, among former smokers, the risk of gastric intestinal metaplasia declined progressively over time, reaching a level comparable to that of never smokers after 15 years of smoking cessation.

Conclusion: The study concluded that there is strong association between the associations between smoking habits (duration, intensity, and quantity) and the risk of developing GIM.

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