EXAMINING THE HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF GRAPE SEED EXTRACT AND THE ANTI-ESTROGENIC POTENTIAL OF LETROZOLE: EXPRESSING AROMATASE GENE PATTERN IN N-ETHYL-NITROSAMINE-INDUCED HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA USING AN ANIMAL MODEL.

Main Article Content

Sadia Kazi
Nasreen Qazi
Kumayl Abbas Meghji
Ali Abbas Thalho
Naila Noor
Mozna Talpur

Keywords

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Grape Seed Extract, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, carcinoma, Aromatase

Abstract

The study investigates the inhibitory effects of grape seed extract on HepG2 cell proliferation, focusing on processes like autophagy and the upregulation of proteins linked to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Extending previous research, it examines the effects of grape seed extract alone and in combination with letrozole on N-ethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in male albino Wistar rats. Employing a quasi-experimental design with purposive sampling, fifty rats were divided into five groups. Significant variations (p < 0.001) in serum albumin and liver enzyme levels were observed among groups through one-way ANOVA analysis. Additionally, a notable disparity (p < 0.05) was found in the relative gene expression of the aromatase gene. The results indicate significant impacts of both letrozole and grape seed extract on liver enzyme levels and highlight Group C as showing restored gene expression (p < 0.05). This study underscores the potential therapeutic effects of grape seed extract and letrozole in mitigating hepatocellular carcinoma progression, emphasizing the importance of further investigation into their mechanisms and clinical applications.

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