Main Article Content

Qaisar Raza
Azmat Ullah
Muniba Khaliq
Riffat Ayesha Anis
Kinza Imran
Rakhshanda Batool
Saeed Imran


Frequency of hepatitis, Hepatitis, Lifestyle determinants of hepatitis, Risk factors of hepatitis, Socio-demographic


Hepatitis is the eighth-highest cause of mortality globally and second-highest in Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to determine frequency of Hepatitis B and C and related lifestyle and socio-demographic risk factors among adults. The data were collected though questionnaire from Hepatitis B and C patients from Mayo and Jinnah hospital Lahore. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 18. There were 5095 patients with Hepatitis B and C out of which 146 patients (67 males and 79 females) filled questionnaire. The frequency of hepatitis C was higher than hepatitis B. The significant risk factors associated with hepatitis B and C were education, marital status, family history, household income, and type of food consumed. Therefore, socio-demographic and lifestyle risk factors related interventions needed to reduce frequency of Hepatitis B and C.

Abstract 269 | Pdf Downloads 56


1. World Health Organization (2018). (Accessed 6.2.2021).
2. World Health Organization (2016) (Accessed 8.2.2021).
3. World Health Organization (July, 2016). (Accessed 21.6.2019).
4. Pakistan Health Research Council. National Hepatitis Focal Person. Islamabad. Pakistan Health Research Council. (Accessed on 30.8.2019).
5. Pakistan Population 2019 World Population Review. Pakistan: Pakistan Population 2019; [updated 2019 August 2; cited 2019 September 27]. Available from
6. Wikipedia contributors. Districts of Pakistan. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia; 2019 Sep 23, 14:50 UTC [cited 2019 Sep 27]. Available
7. Abbas Z, Jeswani N, Kakepoto G, Islam M, Mehdi K, Jafri W. 2008. Prevalence and mode of spread of hepatitis B and C in rural Sindh, Pakistan. Trop Gastroenterol. 29(4): 210-216.
8. Ahmad W, Ijaz B, Javed FT, Jahan S, Shahid I, Khan FM, Hassan S. 2010. HCV genotype distribution and possible transmission risks in Lahore, Pakistan. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. 16(34): 4321.
9. Bhate P, Saraf N, Parikh P, Ingle M, Phadke A, Sawant P. 2015. Cross sectional study of prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection in a rural village of India. Arquivos de Gastroenterologia. 52: 321-324.
10. Bhatti S, Manzoor S. 2016. Molecular epidemiology and clinical features of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in epidemic areas of Interior Sindh, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 32(5): 1279.
11. Ghias M, Pervaiz MK. 2009. Identification of epidemiological risk factors for hepatitis c in Punjab, Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 21(2): 156-161.
12. Ghias M, Pervaiz MK, Aslam A. 2010. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus among Urban/Rural Settings of Patients Visiting Tertiary Care Hospitals at Lahore, Pakistan. Journal of Statistics. 17(1).
13. Gupta S, Sodhi SPS, Brar GK, Bansal RN. 2018. Risk factors for hepatitis C: A clinical study. Journal of Medical Sciences. 38(5): 215-221.
14. Jilani K, Zulfiqar B, Memon QB, Fahim MF. 2017. Frequency and the risk factors of hepatitis C virus in pregnant women; A hospital based descriptive study in Gadap Town Karachi. Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 33(5): 1265.
15. Khan AJ, Luby SP, Fikree F, Karim A, Obaid S, Dellawala S, Mirza S, Malik T, Fisher-Hoch S, McCormick JB. 2000. Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a periurban community in Pakistan. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 78: 956-963.
16. Khan J, Khan BT, Ayaz A, Salman M, Khan K. 2018. Hepatitis-C virus prevalence in district Shangla and evaluation of screening tests for anti-HCV. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 50(4).
17. Mehmood S, Raza H, Abid F, Saeed N, Rehman HM, Javed S, Khan MS. 2020. National prevalence rate of hepatitis B and C in Pakistan and its risk factors. Journal of Public Health. 28(6): 751-764.
18. Mukhtar O, Zaheer F, Malik MF, Khan JS, Ijaz T. 2015. Socio-demographic study of hepatitis c patients visiting tertiary care hospital. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad. 27(3): 650-652.
19. Pouri AA, Ghojazadeh M, Pourasghari B, Baiaz B, Somi MH. 2019. Seroepidemiology and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection in East Azerbaijan, Iran: a population-based Azar Cohort study. Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine. 10(3): 326.
20. Shepard CW, Finelli L, Alter MJ. 2005. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. The Lancet infectious diseases. 5(9): 558-567.
21. Umumararungu E, Ntaganda F, Kagira J, Maina N. 2017. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and its risk factors among patients attending Rwanda Military Hospital, Rwanda. BioMed research international. 2017.
22. Waheed Y, Shafi T, Safi SZ, Qadri I. 2009. Hepatitis C virus in Pakistan: a systematic review of prevalence, genotypes and risk factors. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. 15(45): 5647.
23. Ziaee M, Ebrahimzadeh A, Azarkar Z, Namaei MH, Saburi A, Fereidouni M, Bijari B, Karamian M, Sharifzadeh G. 2016. Seroprevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B in an adult population: the first report from Birjand, South Khorasan, Iran. Hepatitis monthly. 16(9).