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Dr Mir Abid Jan
Dr Munir Khan
Dr Syed Zia Ur Rahman
Dr Kamal Ahmad
Dr Muhammad Hamza Yousuf


‘benign prostatic hyperplasia’, ‘BPH’, ‘metabolic syndrome’, ‘lower urinary tract symptoms’, ‘LUTS’, ‘prevalence’


Background: It is known that the main reason for discomfort of the lower part of the urinary tract in males 40 years of age and older is benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH. Although sex steroids affect BPH, there's increasing interest in investigating the link between metabolic syndrome and urinary symptoms. Research results, however, differ; some point to a strong beneficial relationship, while others show no meaningful correlation.

Objectives: The purpose of this investigation is to identify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals with BPH and investigate any possible connections between metabolic syndrome and symptoms associated with BPH.

Methodology: Participants in this observational cross-sectional study included people 40 years of age and older with benign prostatic hyperplasia. A questionnaire-based interview was conducted to gather data from patients visiting the urology clinic at Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar between Jan 2023 and Oct 2023. Symptoms of urination were evaluated using the “International Prostate Symptom Score” (IPSS), and metabolic syndrome was defined according to the guidelines provided by the “US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel” ‘(NCEP ATPIII)’.

Results: In our cross-sectional study involving 800 individuals, we found a median age of 60 years among participants, with a majority falling within the 51-70 age group. The median Body Mass Index (BMI) was 30, and over half of the participants had a BMI between 25 and 30. Smoking prevalence was 56.25%, and the median International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was 21, indicating a predominantly severe level of symptoms. A majority (62.5%) had elevated blood pressure or was on antihypertensive treatment, while 40% had fasting blood glucose levels ≥ ‘110 mg/dl’ or were on ‘drug treatment’ for raised ‘glucose’. Notably, 40% of participants had metabolic syndrome, and 60% had elevated triglycerides. The median prostate volume was 50 ml.

Conclusion: Our study sheds light on the demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with ‘benign prostatic hyperplasia’ (BPH) and ‘metabolic syndrome’, highlighting the frequency of both conditions and their potential associations. We observed substantial connections between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) intensity and the metabolic syndrome as well as various clinical parameters such as age, BMI, smoking status, and prostate volume. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive assessment and treatment strategies for BPH patients, particularly those with concurrent metabolic syndrome, to optimize clinical outcomes and improve quality of life. More studies are warranted to elucidate the functions responsible for driving these associations and to explore targeted interventions for this patient population.

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