Main Article Content

Asifa Khan
Saifullah Khan
Muneer Ahmad Khan
Humera Malik
Fazal Amin
Dr. Shumaila Noreen



Mosquitoes achieved top ranking among the lethal creatures in the world, as it causes deaths of millions of people annually by acting as vectors of different diseases globally. It creates chaos in the world by spreading Malaria, Chikungunya, Arbovirus, Encephalitis, Filiarisis, Zika virus, Yellow fever and Dengue. A research study was performed to check the relative abundance of adult mosquito and spatial distribution of malaria parasites in district Nowshera.Adult mosquitos were collected from animal rooms and human dwelling areas by using Flit method; protocol. The duration of collection of mosquitos was of 1 year. Collected mosquitos were identified by using taxonomic key by Christopher and Barraud up to species level. A total of 9913 adult mosquitos were collected which includes 4825 males and 5088 female mosquitos belongs to 5 genras Culex, Anopheles, Armigeres, Monsonia & Aedes. A total of 16 species were identified.Culex pipiens quinquifasciaituswere found outnumbered.. For comparing and check the current condition of malaria data of last 5 years were examined i.e. Aug 2016 to Jul 2021.The input data were based on the geospatial factors including climatic, NDVI and Topographical aspects. The data was analyzed using spreadsheet excel and SPSS. For vectors of malaria and its temporal distribution likewise accurate positioning and map making; data was collected from GIS and Remote sensing tools. The integrated malarial data was analyzed and relation with vectors abundance was examined. The data shows a gradual fall from 2016 to 2020 and formerly a slight inclination in the current year. Plasmodium vivax was found prevalent as compare to P.falciparum followed by mixed cases. Months of July, August, September & October were found to have high abundance of Anopheline mosquitos as well as the prevalence of malarial parasites. Age group of 15 and above were founded to be highly affected as compare to lower age groups.

Abstract 247 | pdf Downloads 30


1. K. Usman, H. U. Rehman, K. Pervaiz, S. Khudadad, B. Khattak, and N. Ahmad, "Mosquitoes fauna from Babel Khel district Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan," International Journal of Mosquito Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 44-46, 2017.
2. M. Oneeb et al., "Seasonal distribution of Anopheline species and their association with meteorological factors in PUNJAB, Pakistan," JAPS: Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, vol. 26, no. 5, 2016.
3. F. Oladeji, P. Idowu, and M. Balogu, "A Web-Based Spatial Distribution of Malaria in Nigeria."
4. O. E. Malahlela, C. Adjorlolo, J. M. Olwoch, M. L. Kganyago, and M. J. Mashalane, "Integrating geostatistics and remote sensing for mapping the spatial distribution of cattle hoofprints in relation to malaria vector control," International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 40, no. 15, pp. 5917-5937, 2019.
5. S. H. Hundessa et al., "Spatial and space–time distribution of Plasmodiumvivax and Plasmodiumfalciparum malaria in China, 2005–2014," Malaria journal, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-11, 2016.
6. Taddese, A. G. Baraki, and K. A. Gelaye, "Spatial modeling, prediction and seasonal variation of malaria in northwest Ethiopia," BMC research notes, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1-6, 2019.
7. J. Cornel et al., "Mosquito community composition in South Africa and some neighboring countries," Parasites & vectors, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-12, 2018.
8. J. Iqbal, M. Al-Awadhi, and S. Ahmad, "Decreasing trend of imported malaria cases but increasing influx of mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections in malaria-free Kuwait," PloS one, vol. 15, no. 12, p. e0243617, 2020.
9. M. Karmakar and M. Pradhan, "Climate change and public health: a study of vector-borne diseases in Odisha, India," Natural Hazards, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 659-671, 2020.
10. Moiz, H. M. Arshad, A. Raheem, H. Hayat, N. K. Ghanchi, and M. A. Beg, "Frequency of G6PD Mediterranean in individuals with and without malaria in Southern Pakistan," Malaria journal, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1-6, 2017.
11. S. D. Nyadanu, G. Pereira, D. N. Nawumbeni, and T. Adampah, "Geo-visual integration of health outcomes and risk factors using excess risk and conditioned choropleth maps: a case study of malaria incidence and sociodemographic determinants in Ghana," BMC public health, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1-16, 2019.
12. M. Sowilem, M. Elshaier, W. Atwa, A. El-Zeiny, and A. El-Hefni, "Species composition and relative abundance of mosquito larvae in Suez Canal Zone, Egypt," Asian Journal of Biology, pp. 1-12, 2017.

13. N. Howard, L. Guinness, M. Rowland, N. Durrani, and K. S. Hansen, "Cost-effectiveness of adding indoor residual spraying to case management in Afghan refugee settlements in Northwest Pakistan during a prolonged malaria epidemic," PLoS neglected tropical diseases, vol. 11, no. 10, p. e0005935, 2017.
14. Shah, J. Ye, R. Shaw, R. Ullah, and M. Ali, "Factors affecting flood-induced household vulnerability and health risks in Pakistan: the case of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province," International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, vol. 42, p. 101341, 2020.
15. E. Zandian, S. Nodez, M. Khosravani, A. Rafatpanah, and R. Latifi, "GIS determination of malaria hot spots in Qeshm Island," Iran. J Zoonotic Dis Public Health, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 1, 2019.
16. Ashfaq, P. D. Hebert, J. H. Mirza, A. M. Khan, Y. Zafar, and M. S. Mirza, "Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding," PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 5, p. e97268, 2014.
17. M. F. Umer, S. Zofeen, A. Majeed, W. Hu, X. Qi, and G. Zhuang, "Effects of socio-environmental factors on malaria infection in Pakistan: a Bayesian spatial analysis," International journal of environmental research and public health, vol. 16, no. 8, p. 1365, 2019.
18. Baboo, M. Shoukat, and M. A. Khan, "Biodiversity of Culicidae Mosquitoes in District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir," Pakistan J. Zool, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 757-760, 2021.
19. M. M. Wattoo, A. Chaudhry, Z. N. Rana, J. Rashid, and S. Afzal, "Spatial and Temporal Epidemiology of Vector-borne Diseases in Punjab province of Pakistan-2018," Global Biosecurity, vol. 2, no. 1, 2020.
20. M. H. Mazher, J. Iqbal, M. A. Mahboob, and I. Atif, "Modeling spatio-temporal malaria risk using remote sensing and environmental factors," Iranian journal of public health, vol. 47, no. 9, p. 1281, 2018.