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Mian Mamoon Gul
Safi Ullah Khan
Tayyba Malik
Wasfa Aijaz
Maryum Imran
Ahmed Bendari


Diabetic foot, Type 2 diabetes, Vitamin D deficiency


Objectives: To assess the association between Vitamin D levels and diabetic foot in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Materials and Methods:  This Case-control study was conducted at multiples centres including Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Employee Social Security Institution, Pakistan and Health Department, Khyber PakhtunKhwa, Pakistan in the duration from July, 2023 to December, 2023 in which a total of 230 patients were enrolled and were divided into two groups: Group A, comprising individuals with diabetic foot, and Group B, consisting of those without diabetic foot. The total serum concentration of 25-OH-vitamin D was assessed using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method, specifically with the Roche Cobas e601 analyzer.

Results: The study involved a total of 230 patients, with a mean age of 54.18±10.817 years across all participants. In Group A, which consisted of individuals with diabetic foot, there were 66 (57.4%) males and 49 (42.6%) females, while in Group B, comprising patients without diabetic foot, there were 60 (52.2%) males and 55 (47.8%) females. The mean serum concentration of 25-(OH)-VD (nmol/L) differed significantly between the two groups, with Group A recording 31.62±3.97 and Group B recording 38.38±6.06, with a p-value of 0.00. In Group A, the frequency of vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency, and deficiency were 30, 49, and 36, respectively, while in Group B, these frequencies were 46, 48, and 21, respectively. The study found that the serum level of 25-OH vitamin D was independently associated with diabetic foot, with a p-value of 0.00 and an odds ratio of 0.973.

Conclusion: It was concluded that low serum vitamin D levels were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of diabetic foot among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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