Main Article Content

Wajeeha Ishrat
Farah Owais
Shahana Wahid
Sana Waqar
Toqeer Abbas
Humera Khatoon
Maham Siddiqui
Javeria Khan
Syed Fozail Sarmad
Javeria Javed


Type 2 DM, sitagliptin, Metformin, Insulin, Safety and Efficacy


Background: Diabetes mellitus is a public health concern that affects the global population. There are several treatment plans which manage the symptoms and complications of type 2 DM. In this research, a combination of insulin and metformin is analyzed along with the addition of sitagliptin for type 2 DM patients.

Objectives: The study aims to evaluate the safety, efficiency and efficacy of sitagliptin in patients with type 2 DM who are on a combination of insulin and metformin.

Methodology: The study is an observational retrospective study based on previously occurred follow-up. Over the course of 10-years treatment, around 20,000 patients with type 2 DM were screened, out of which 100 patients were randomly selected and assigned into two treatment groups with defined conditions and scenarios. Blood sugar, kidney and lipid profile of the patients were monitored.

Results: FBS, RBS, HbA1C among the participants who were taking sitagliptin as a therapy along with insulin and metformin were found to be lowered (p<0.001) than the participants not taking sitagliptin. CBC, serum electrolytes, Coagulation, lipid and kidney profile were also found to be supportive for enhanced safety and efficacy status among the patients along with lower number of reported ADRs. However, elevation in AST (p <0.001), ALT (P<0.01), serum creatinine (p <0.01) after the addition of sitagliptin need further investigation to rule out its hepatoprotective and nephroprotective status.

Conclusions: The study has evaluated the safety and efficacy of single or combination antidiabetic therapies needs to be considered while managing the diabetic condition.

Abstract 207 | PDF Downloads 85


1. Aono, M., & Sato, Y. (2016). Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor linagliptin can decrease the dosage of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients on hemodialysis. Renal Replacement Therapy, 2(1), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41100-016-0058-7
2. Ballav, C., & Gough, S. C. (2013). Safety and Efficacy of Sitagliptin-Metformin in Fixed Combination for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Clinical Medicine Insights: Endocrinology and Diabetes, 6(1), 25-37.
3. Chaudhury, A., Duvoor, C., Reddy Dendi, V. S., Kraleti, S., Chada, A., Ravilla, R., Marco, A., Shekhawat, N. S., Montales, M. T., Kuriakose, K., Sasapu, A., Beebe, A., Patil, N., Musham, C. K., Lohani, G. P., & Mirza, W. (2017). Clinical Review of Antidiabetic Drugs: Implications for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Management. Frontiers in endocrinology, 8(6), 1-12.
4. Donner, T., & Sarkar, S. (2019). Insulin – Pharmacology, Therapeutic Regimens, and Principles of Intensive Insulin Therapy In K. R. Feingold, B. Anawalt, & A. Boyce (Eds.), Endotext [Internet]. MDText.com, Inc. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278938/
5. Goyal, R., & Jialal, I. (2020). Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. https://europepmc.org/article/NBK/NBK513253
6.Kelly, A., Sheikh, S., Stefanovski, D., Amy, J., Nyirjesy, S.C., Eiel, J.N., Sidhaye, A., Localio, R., Gallop, R., De Leon, D.D. and Hadjiliadis, D. (2021). Randomized, controlled trial of sitagliptin and islet function in cystic fibrosis with abnormal glucose tolerance. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
7. Mehanna, A. (2013). Antidiabetic agents: past, present and future. Future Medicinal Chemistry, 5(4), 411-430.
8. Ozougwu, J. C., Obimba, K. C., Belonwu, C. D., & Unakalamba, C. B. (2013). The Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology, 4(4), 46-57.
9. Shahbaz, A., Aziz, K., Umair, M., Sharifzadeh, M. and Sachmechi, I. (2018). Acute liver injury induced by sitagliptin: report of two cases and review of literature. Cureus,
10. Stefan, N. (2020). Causes, Consequences, and Treatment of Metabolically Unhealthy Fat Distribution. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 8(7), 616-627.
11. Vivek, K., Reddy, S., & Gonzalez, J. (2015). Hormones Part 2: Insulin and Other Glucose- Controlling Medications Essentials of Pharmacology for Anesthesia, Pain Medicine, and Critical Care (pp. 327-343): Springer.
12. Xu, B., Shen, T., Chen, L., Xia, J., Zhang, C., Wang, H., . . . Lei, T. (2017). The effect of sitagliptin on lipid metabolism of fatty liver mice and related mechanisms. Medical¬¬-Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 23, 1363.

Most read articles by the same author(s)