Main Article Content

Dr. Ayesha Aziz
Dr. Anurag Rawat
Razia Virk
Dr. E. N. Ganesh
Dr. Aanchal Tamrakar
Muhammad Umar


Cardiovascular Diseases, Psychological Stress, Psychological Adaptation.


Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) constitute a significant burden on healthcare systems worldwide, given their chronic nature and high mortality rates. Despite advancements in technology and clinical understanding, the psychological dimensions of CVD remain relatively understudied.

Objective: This research aims to ascertain the prevalence of psychological disturbances among patients receiving outpatient treatment for CVD.

Methods: A descriptive-quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted, utilizing instruments such as a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and the Brief Cope Scale. Data were collected between March and April 2022 at the outpatient clinic of Hospital Estadual de Urgências de Goiás Dr. Valdomiro Cruz. Descriptive statistics, including absolute and relative frequencies, means, medians, and standard deviations (SD), were employed to analyze sociodemographic and clinical variables.

Results: The study revealed a notable prevalence of psychological symptoms among patients undergoing outpatient treatment for cardiovascular disease. Predominant symptoms included psychoticism, anxiety, and depression, while instrumental support, emotional support, and religiosity emerged as primary coping strategies.

Conclusion: Psychological symptoms, notably psychoticism, anxiety, and depression, are prevalent among patients undergoing outpatient treatment for cardiovascular disease. Understanding and addressing these psychological aspects are crucial for comprehensive patient care and improved treatment outcomes.

Abstract 333 | PDF Downloads 93


1. Abdelwahed, N. A. A. (2024). The Impact of Psychological Stress on Personal Income, Physical Health and Entrepreneurial Intentions among Entrepreneurs. OBM Neurobiology, 8(1), 1-16.
2. Albus, C. (2024). Low socio-economic status: how can we prevent its negative impact on cardiovascular disease incidence and prognosis? (Vol. 31, pp. 38-39): Oxford University Press US.
3. Amu, H., Dzenu, M. W., Baku, S. T., Naboare, D., Charles-Unadike, V. O., Boateng, L. A., . . . Baiden, F. E. (2024). Addressing mental health challenges and noncommunicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: An analysis from health systems approach. Preventive Medicine: Research & Reviews, 1(1), 21-24.
4. Burback, L., Brult-Phillips, S., Nijdam, M. J., McFarlane, A., & Vermetten, E. (2024). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: A state-of-the-art review. Current neuropharmacology, 22(4), 557-635.
5. Chair, S. Y., Cheng, H. Y., Lo, S. W. S., Sit, J. W. H., Wong, E. M. L., Leung, K. C., . . . Leung, T. S. Y. (2024). Effectiveness of a home-based music-paced physical activity programme on exercise-related outcomes after cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, zvad115.
6. Charchar, F. J., Prestes, P. R., Mills, C., Ching, S. M., Neupane, D., Marques, F. Z., . . . Korostovtseva, L. (2024). Lifestyle management of hypertension: International Society of Hypertension position paper endorsed by the World Hypertension League and European Society of Hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 42(1), 23-49.
7. Christogianni, A. (2025). The Benefits of Continuous Health Data Monitoring in Cardiovascular Diseases and Dementia Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Sixth Edition (pp. 1-22): IGI Global.
8. Cozma, D., Siatra, P., Bornstein, S. R., & Steenblock, C. (2024). Sensitivity of the neuroendocrine stress axis in metabolic diseases. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 56(01), 65-77.
9. Das, B., & Fatima, T. (2024). Importance of lifestyle modifications Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (pp. 166-170): Elsevier.
10. Dennis, J., & Zolnikov, T. R. (2024). Demystifying male emotional development: Exploring the implications of forced gender roles on Black American males. Journal of Black Psychology, 00957984231191868.
11. Ebrahimi, R., Dennis, P. A., Shroyer, A. L. W., Tseng, C.-H., Alvarez, C. A., Beckham, J. C., & Sumner, J. A. (2024). Pathways linking posttraumatic stress disorder to incident ischemic heart disease in women: call to action. JACC: Advances, 3(1), 100744.
12. Gianfredi, V., Mazziotta, F., Clerici, G., Astorri, E., Oliani, F., Cappellina, M., . . . Castaldi, S. (2024). Climate Change Perception and Mental Health. Results from a Systematic Review of the Literature. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 14(1), 215-229.
13. Griffiths, A., Link, K., Haughtigan, K., Beer, O. W., Powell, L., & Royse, D. (2024). Physiological evidence of escalating stress during COVID-19: A longitudinal assessment of child welfare workers. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 18(1), 158-181.
14. Hahad, O., Gilan, D. A., Chalabi, J., Al-Kindi, S., Schuster, A. K., Wicke, F., . . . Galle, P. R. (2024). Cumulative social disadvantage and cardiovascular disease burden and mortality. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 31(1), 40-48.
15. Hege, A. (2024). Adverse childhood experiences and cardiovascular disease risks: implications for North Carolina and the need for an upstream approach. North Carolina Medical Journal, 85(1).
16. Horsch, A., Garthus-Niegel, S., Ayers, S., Chandra, P., Hartmann, K., Vaisbuch, E., & Lalor, J. (2024). Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder: definition, risk factors, pathophysiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
17. Ivynian, S. E., Ferguson, C., Newton, P. J., & DiGiacomo, M. (2024). The role of illness perceptions in delayed care-seeking in heart failure: a mixed-methods study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 150, 104644.
18. Jutterström, L., Stenlund, A.-L., Otten, J., Lilja, M., & Hellström Ängerud, K. (2024). Awareness of cardiovascular risk among persons with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 19(1), 2294512.
19. Karthikeyan, N. (2024). A novel attention-based cross-modal transfer learning framework for predicting cardiovascular disease. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 107977.
20. Kayhan, S. A., & Nural, N. (2024). The effect of web-based education delivered as part of cardiac rehabilitation on healthy lifestyle behaviors, and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease in Turkey: A randomised controlled trial. Patient Education and Counseling, 119, 108082.
21. Khedr, M. A., Ali, E. A., Sanhoury, M. I., & Hussein, R. M. (2024). The feasibility of motivational interviewing on adherence to care practices, emotional intelligence, and dispositional optimism among patients with permanent pacemakers. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, zvad113.
22. Kim, A. W. (2024). Psychosocial stress, adult suicidal ideation, and the mediating effect of poor sleep quality during the COVID‐19 pandemic in South Africa. American Journal of Human Biology, e24038.
23. Kirkbride, J. B., Anglin, D. M., Colman, I., Dykxhoorn, J., Jones, P. B., Patalay, P., . . . Wright, T. (2024). The social determinants of mental health and disorder: evidence, prevention and recommendations. World psychiatry, 23(1), 58.
24. Kovacs, A. H., Luyckx, K., Thomet, C., Budts, W., Enomoto, J., Sluman, M. A., . . . Cook, S. C. (2024). Anxiety and depression in adults with congenital heart disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 83(3), 430-441.
25. Lee, S., Nolan, A., Guerin, J., Koons, B., Matura, L. A., Jurgens, C. Y., . . . Riegel, B. (2024). The symptom perception processes of monitoring, awareness, and evaluation in patients with heart failure: a qualitative descriptive study. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, zvad116.
26. Matthias, M. S., Daggy, J. K., Perkins, A. J., Adams, J., Bair, M. J., Burgess, D. J., . . . Menen, T. (2024). Communication and activation in pain to enhance relationships and treat pain with equity (COOPERATE): a randomized clinical trial. Pain, 165(2), 365-375.
27. McIntyre, R. S., Kwan, A. T., Rosenblat, J. D., Teopiz, K. M., & Mansur, R. B. (2024). Psychotropic Drug–Related Weight Gain and Its Treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 181(1), 26-38.
28. McKechnie, A. C., Elgersma, K. M., Ambrose, M. B., Mejia, A. A. S., Shah, K. M., Wagner, T. I., . . . Hallock, C. (2024). Nurse-guided mobile health care program to reduce emotional distress experienced by parents of infants prenatally diagnosed with critical congenital heart disease: A pilot study. Progress in Pediatric Cardiology, 72, 101687.
29. Nathani, M., Vogel, B., & Mehran, R. (2024). Closing the gap: cardiovascular disease in women. Climacteric, 1-6.
30. Nelson, A. J., Pagidipati, N. J., & Bosworth, H. B. (2024). Improving medication adherence in cardiovascular disease. Nature Reviews Cardiology, 1-13.
31. Pearsons, A., Hanson, C. L., Hendriks, J. M., & Neubeck, L. (2024). Understanding for whom, under what conditions, and how an integrated approach to atrial fibrillation service delivery works: a realist review. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, zvad093.
32. Pouwer, F., Mizokami-Stout, K., Reeves, N. D., Pop-Busui, R., Tesfaye, S., Boulton, A. J., & Vileikyte, L. (2024). Psychosocial care for people with diabetic neuropathy: time for action. Diabetes Care, 47(1), 17-25.
33. Rahman, H. A., Ong, S. K., Arifin, E. N., Ahmad, S. R., Murang, Z. R., Tuah, N. A., . . . Naing, L. (2024). Cluster analysis of Noncommunicable disease risk factors among adults in Brunei: The National Health and Nutritional Status Survey based on WHO’s STEPwise methodology.
34. Rogerson, M. C., Jackson, A. C., Navaratnam, H. S., Le Grande, M. R., Higgins, R. O., Clarke, J., & Murphy, B. M. (2024). Behavioural and psychological telehealth support for people with cardiac conditions: randomized trial of the ‘back on track’self-management programme. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 23(1), 42-54.
35. Sampogna, G., Toni, C., Catapano, P., Della Rocca, B., Di Vincenzo, M., Luciano, M., & Fiorillo, A. (2024). New trends in personalized treatment of depression. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 37(1), 3-8.
36. Sanzone, M., & Sammons, M. (2024). Integrating Pharmacotherapy and Psychotherapy for Weight Loss. Journal of Health Service Psychology, 1-8.
37. Sidik, N. P., Stanley, B., Sykes, R., Morrow, A. J., Bradley, C. P., McDermott, M., . . . Stobo, D. (2024). Invasive endotyping in patients with angina and no obstructive coronary artery disease: a randomized controlled trial. Circulation, 149(1), 7-23.
38. Sur, N. B., Kozberg, M., Desvigne-Nickens, P., Silversides, C., & Bushnell, C. (2024). Improving stroke risk factor management focusing on health disparities and knowledge gaps. Stroke.
39. Tenchov, R., Sasso, J. M., Wang, X., & Zhou, Q. A. (2024). Aging Hallmarks and Progression and Age-Related Diseases: A Landscape View of Research Advancement. ACS Chemical Neuroscience.
40. Zaretsky, T. G., Jagodnik, K. M., Barsic, R., Antonio, J. H., Bonanno, P. A., MacLeod, C., . . . Saylor, C. (2024). The Psychedelic Future of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Treatment. Current neuropharmacology, 22(4), 636-735.

Most read articles by the same author(s)